Sweet Briar College
|Sweet Briar College|
|Motto||Rosam quae meruit ferat (Latin)|
Motto in English
|She who has earned the rose may bear it.|
|Type||Private women's college|
|Endowment||$94.0 million (2014)1|
|President||James F. Jones (interim)2|
|Location||Sweet Briar, Virginia, United States|
|Campus||Rural, 3,250 acres (13.15 km2)|
|Colors||Pink and Green|
|Athletics||NCAA Division III, ODAC|
Sweet Briar College is a women's liberal arts college in Sweet Briar, Virginia, United States, about 12 miles (19 km) north of Lynchburg, Virginia. The college is on 3,250 acres (13,152,283 m2) in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains, on the former estate of the college's founder, Indiana Fletcher Williams. Sweet Briar was established in 1901 as the Sweet Briar Institute4 and opened its doors in 1906.5 Known as Sweet Briar College, the school is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges6 to award the Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts in Teaching and Master of Education.7
On March 3, 2015, the college announced that it would be closing at the end of the summer session, citing "insurmountable financial challenges".8 In response, a group of concerned alumnae and friends of Sweet Briar College formed an unofficial online fundraising website, Saving Sweet Briar, geared toward reversing the board's decision.9
The college is named after the former plantation of Elijah Fletcher and his family. Fletcher was a 19th-century teacher, businessman and mayor of Lynchburg, Virginia. His wife, Maria Crawford, is credited with naming the land Sweet Briar. By the mid-19th century, there were 80-100 slaves at Fletcher's plantation. After their emancipation in 1865, several former slaves continued to work for pay and live at Sweet Briar. At Elijah Fletcher's death, his daughter, Indiana, inherited the plantation. In 1900, Indiana died and willed the land and much of her assets to establish a college for women, in honor of her daughter, Daisy, who died at age 16.10
In 1901, Sweet Briar was chartered as Sweet Briar Institute as indicated in the will of Indiana Fletcher Williams, who stated that the land of Sweet Briar plantation must be used as a "school or seminary to be known as the 'Sweet Briar institute,' for the education of white girls and young women. It shall be the general scope and object of the school to impart to its students such education in sound learning, and such physical, moral and religious training as shall, in the judgment of the directors, best fit them to be useful members of society".11
In 1906, Sweet Briar College officially opened with 51 students and granted its first AB degrees in 1910. In 1932, Sweet Briar's study abroad exchange program with the University of St. Andrews, Scotland was established. In 1948, the renowned Junior Year in France (JYF) program was launched, followed by a number of other study abroad programs.121314
Indiana Fletcher Williams' will limited the college to the education of white women, and legal action to alter the will was required to admit African-American students.15 On August 17, 1964, wishing to eliminate "white" from the charter and comply with the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Sweet Briar filed a bill of complaint with the Amherst County Circuit Court. The request was initially denied at the state level, with the Commonwealth's Attorney General stating that the will was "plain, unambiguous, conclusive, and binding". After several years of unsuccessful state litigation, the college filed a complaint with the federal U.S. District Court for the Western District of Virginia. On April 25, 1966, Judge Thomas J. Michie issued a temporary restraining order that prevented enforcement of the racial restriction. On July 17, 1967, a three-judge Charlottesville court confirmed permanence of the restraining order. The first African-American student was admitted to the college in September 1966.1516
Sweet Briar has a robust academic reputation.17 During its first decade, Sweet Briar ran a "sub-college" department to prepare students for college-level work.18192021 The original board of trustees appointed in Williams' will maintained that the college would be the academic equivalent of Smith, Wellesley and Mount Holyoke.22 The difference in Sweet Briar's curriculum was the inclusion of "hands-on" or "practical" courses, as well as physical education, in accordance with Williams' directive that the school produce "useful members of society".2324 This forward-thinking approach evolved into the college's current core mission, where students have direct access to their disciplines while gaining real-world and classroom learning experience. During the first few years of the college, this concept quickly gave way to a more traditional liberal arts curriculum.2526
On March 3, 2015, the college's board of directors, following a unanimous vote on February 28, 2015, announced the college would close on August 25, 2015, due to "insurmountable financial challenges". They cited declining enrollment and an endowment insufficient to cover potentially large-scale changes needed to boost enrollment, like coeducation.27 Another possible factor presented by the board is a declining interest in the traditional women's college model.2829
Academic activity is expected to cease as of August 25, 2015, the college’s pending closing date. Some professors have received termination notices stating their last day of work will be May 30, 2015.30
Between 2011 and March 2015, Sweet Briar's endowment dropped from $96.2 to $84 million.31 Most of the college's endowment is restricted, meaning the money must serve a specifically designated purposes, such as scholarships or faculty chairs. According to Standard & Poor’s (S&P), which rates the college’s bond debt, only $19 million was unrestricted; $18 million temporarily restricted and $53 million permanently restricted.3233 Sweet Briar is burdened with about $25 million in debt owed primarily to bondholders.32 College administrators posted a FAQ explaining plans to use available funds to transfer students to other schools and pay legal obligations (like debt and pensions) and fund faculty and staff severance packages. It will request legal guidance on restricted endowment disposition(s).8343536
A group of Sweet Briar alumnae, students, faculty, and supporters have united in an attempt to save the college through legal action, social media and a fundraising campaign, "Saving Sweet Briar".937 On March 16, 2015, 65 faculty members passed a resolution opposing the board's unilateral decision to close the college.38 A week later, the alumnae-founded group, Saving Sweet Briar, Inc., published a letter from its attorneys demanding the immediate resignation of interim President James F. Jones, Jr. and the Board of Directors, citing legal violations and a lack of interest in preserving the school.39 In a return statement, the President and the Board declined resignation, saying that doing so would "further destabilize an already fragile situation", and that allegations against them were "wrong and unfair".4041
A group of faculty members and alumnae have also proposed an alternate plan for the future of the college – shifting the focus of the school to accelerated STEM fields programs, while still maintaining a liberal arts basis.43 The idea would require a $62 million starting investment and an entering class of 120 students. The Board has agreed to hear alternate ideas and to meet with faculty.4445
On March 30, 2015 the Amherst County attorney filed a suit on behalf of the Commonwealth of Virginia seeking an injunction to block the closing of Sweet Briar College and to force removal of the president and board of directors.46474849 A private attorney representing an alumna filed a private request for a similar injunction in the same court on the same day; the hearing on this preliminary injunction is expected later this week.50 On the same day the faculty of the college unanimously released a statement detailing a vote of no confidence against the Board of Directors, Sweet Briar Institute, and the interim President, calling for their resignation.5152
Sweet Briar College Historic District
|Location||Sweet Briar Dr., .5 miles west of US 29, Amherst, Virginia|
|Area||27.2 acres (11.0 ha)|
|Architect||Ralph Adams Cram; et al.|
|Architectural style||Colonial Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||9500024053|
|Added to NRHP||March 30, 1995|
|Designated VLR||January 15, 199554|
The college's architecture is dominated by the work of Ralph Adams Cram, who also lent his architectural expertise to the campuses of Princeton University and West Point, among others. Cram's forté was Gothic Revival, but with Sweet Briar, he took a different approach, designing the college in a Colonial Revival style using red brick buildings with white balustrades and arcades.55
Twenty-one of the thirty campus buildings were designated as the "Sweet Briar College Historic District" by the National Register of Historic Places. Sweet Briar House, which traditionally houses the college president, is among these buildings.535657
The campus property includes the Sweet Briar plantation burial ground (known as the slave cemetery), where upwards of 60 slaves are buried. Archaeologists have uncovered many slave artifacts on campus. A 170-year-old slave cabin, which also was used for early college employees, is currently installed behind Sweet Briar House.585960
Approximately 40% of the college’s faculty and staff live on campus in private houses and apartments.61 The college has not yet determined how the pending closure will affect campus homeowners and renters.30
The college operates on a semester system62 and operates 50 undergraduate courses of study, three preprofessional programs (pre-law, pre-medicine and pre-veterinary), and two graduate degrees. Both graduate programs are coedcitation needed and in the field of education.citation needed
- Sweet Briar College is the second women's college to offer an ABET-accredited engineering degree.6364
- Sweet Briar College offers several study abroad programs, most with a focus on foreign language. The two most established programs are Junior Year in France (JYF) and Junior Year in Spain (JYS). Other programs include the Japanese Studies Program at Doshisha Women’s College, Wake Forest/SASASAAS Program in China-Beijing, Intercollegiate Center of Classical Studies in Rome, the American School of Classical Studies Summer Program at Athens, the National Security Education Program (NSEP) in multiple countries, and other programs in different locations. With approval, students earn credit for international internships.65
- Sweet Briar College's Honors Program offers fellowships to students to support independent research projects under the supervision of faculty mentors. Projects may be interdisciplinary and include multiple mentors.66 Past projects are listed online.67
- The Student Research and Creative Endeavors Grants provide up to $500 to offset costs associated with student research or creative projects. Grant applications may be from individual students or teams of students.68
- Student Travel Grants from the Honors Program supports academic-related travel during the academic year. 69
- Sweet Briar College offers several scholarships available for academic travel, which may be used to attend conferences.65
Sweet Briar is a residential campus, and nearly all students live on campus. 70 There are seven standard dormitories and additional living options for upperclasswomen in the Green Village and Patterson House. The college has over 50 clubs and organizations.
Like other women's colleges in the United States, Sweet Briar College has many traditions.71
The most prominent is the annual Founder's Day, when students, faculty and staff walk to Monument Hill to place daisies at Daisy Williams's grave site and memorial.72
Students also participate in recreational sports through the Sweet Briar Outdoor Program (SWEBOP), which organizes a number of trips throughout the year, including hiking, fly fishing, caving, rock climbing and weekly kayaking and skiing.73
The college is known for its horseback riding program,74 which focuses on show and field hunters, hunt seat equitation, and show jumping. The school has seven riding teams. These include a jumper team, hunter show team, JV hunter show team, American National Riding Commission (ANRC) team, field team and Intercollegiate Horse Show Association (IHSA) team. As part of its program, students can study for an Equine Studies Certificate with a focus in training or equine management.74
Sweet Briar's accolades include 9 American National Riding Commission (ANRC) team national championship titles (1978, 1979, 1980, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1999),75 and 10 ANRC team reserve national championships titles (1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005). Sweet Briar students have been individual national champions nine times,76 and individual reserve ANRC national champions seven times. In 2006, Sweet Briar's Intercollegiate Horse Show Association (IHSA) team won their region (Zone 4, Region 1) and placed second at Zones, qualifying the team for the Nationals Competition.77 The team placed third overall In 2008, Sweet Briar IHSA again won their region and proceeded to the Nationals, where team members collected individual ribbons.7879
- In 2010, Princeton Review's "Best 361 Colleges" ranked Sweet Briar No. 8 for "Best Career Services", No 11 for "Class Discussions Encouraged", No. 6 for "Most Beautiful Campus", No. 4 for "Professors Get High Marks", No. 3 for "Most Accessible Professors", and No. 8 for "Best Classroom Experience",citation needed making Sweet Briar the only college in the nation to appear on all four academic top-20 lists.citation needed
- The 2012 Princeton Review ranked Sweet Briar College in five of the Princeton Review’s top-20 lists. Of 376 colleges, the college was ranked seventh for “Most Accessible Professors”, eighth for “Best Classroom Experience”, eleventh for “Class Discussions Encouraged” and fourteeth for “Professors Get High Marks”, as well as sixth for "Most Beautiful Campus". The College made one more top-20 list in the 2012 guidebook, coming in at No. 13 for “Dorms Like Palaces”.80
- The 2013 Princeton Review ranked Sweet Briar College in five of the Princeton Review’s top-20 lists. Of 377 colleges, the college was ranked eighteenth for “Class Discussions Encouraged”, third for "Most Beautiful Campus, seventh for “Most Accessible Professors”, and nineteenth for “Best College Dorms" and twentieth for “Nobody Plays Intramural Sports”.81
- The 2014 Princeton Review ranked Sweet Briar College in four of the Princeton Review’s top-20 lists. Of 378 colleges, Sweet Briar ranked sixteenth for “Most Accessible Professors”, tenth for “Best Career Services”, sixth “Most Beautiful Campus”, and thirteenth for “Best College Dorms".82
- Sweet Briar College was selected by U.S. News & World Report as #116 of the "Best National Liberal Arts Colleges" in 201583 and #110 in 2014.84
- Forbes currently lists Sweet Briar College for the following, based on 2013 datasets: "#245 Overall", "#180 in Private Colleges", "#49 in the South", "Forbes Financial Grade: A".85 Forbes had previously ranked Sweet Briar at #252 in America's Top Colleges in 2013.citation needed
- Victor Henningsen, former president of the Board of Trustees
- Colleen Bell, United States Ambassador to Hungary
- Janet Lee Bouvier, mother of Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis
- Leah Busque, entrepreneur, founder of TaskRabbit, and TED speaker86
- Elaine Dundy, actor, journalist, novelist, biographer, and playwright
- Sally Miller Gearhart, educator and science fiction writer
- Molly Haskell, feminist film critic and author
- Diana Muldaur, actor and former president of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences
- Anna Chao Pai, American geneticist and professor emerita at Montclair State University.87
- Jean Oliver Sartor, artist
- Mary Lee Settle, author
- Polly Sowell, elected to the Texas State Republican Committee in 1960, elected Vice Chairman of the Texas Republican Party in 1972,88 served on the Texas Commission on the Arts, and appointed a member of Humanities Texas89
- Ann Taylor, National Public Radio newscaster (former student but did not graduate).
- Teresa Tomlinson, current mayor of Columbus, Georgia
- Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, director of the Developmental Disabilities Branch of the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)9091
- John Gregory Brown - English professor, novelist
- Adeline Ames - Botany professor
- Marion Elizabeth Blake - Classics professor
- Carrie Brown - Former Margaret Banister Writer-in-Residence, English professor, novelist
- Cornelius Eady - Poet
- Connie Myers Guion - Professor of physics, Professor and head of the chemistry department at Sweet Briar College 1908-19139293 who later earned an M.D. from Cornell University's Weill Medical College
- Iren Marik - Classical pianist
- Constance Merritt - Former Margaret Banister Writer-in-Residence
- Mary Oliver - Pulitzer Prize winning poet
- Barbara A. Perry - Carter Glass Professor of Government, Author, National Media Commentator
List of presidents94
- James F. Jones Jr. - Interim (2014–2016) 2
- Jo Ellen Parker (2009–2014)
- Elisabeth Showalter Muhlenfeld - President emerita (1996–2009)
- Barbara A. Hill (1990–1996)
- Nenah Elinor Fry (1983–1990)
- Harold B. Whiteman, Jr. (1971–1983)
- Anne Gary Pannell (1950–1971)
- Martha B. Lucas (1946–1950)
- Meta Glass (1925–1946)
- Emilie Watts McVea (1916–1925)
- Mary K. Benedict (1906–1916)
- As of June 30, 2014. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2013 to FY 2014". National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2015.
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- "Sweet Briar College faculty passes resolution opposing closure". www.roanoke.com.
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- sbc.edu, College Profile (Retrieved 3-16-15)
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- (c-ville.com, Courtney Stuart,"Alumnae fight back over planned closure of Sweet Briar College," March 11, 2015 (Retrieved 3-16-15)
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- Stohlman, Martha Lou Lemmon (1956). The story of Sweet Briar College. Alumnae Association of Sweet Briar College.
- Archive.org. "Copy of the Charter of Sweet Briar Institute and of the Amendments of Said Charter".
- "SWEET BRIAR PLANS STUDY GROUP IN PARIS". New York Times. Jan 13, 1948. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
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- Abrams, Mary Malyneux. "Thank You Mr. Newman: Re-Interpreting the Will of Indiana Fletcher Williams". Archive.org. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "In the Supreme Court of the United States, October term 1966 : Sweet Briar Institute, appellant, v. Robert Y. Button, et al., appellees, on appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia; jurisdicitonal statement". Archive.org. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Argetsinger, Amy (2000-11-27). "Va. College Scores Well On New Test; Survey Finds Sweet Briar Among Best for Learning". Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "SCHOLARSHIP FOR GIRLS.: Offered by Sweet Briar Institute to Candidates from the South" (1877-1922). Washington Post. July 19, 1906. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
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- "Sweet Briar Strong On Foreign Affairs" (1923-1954). Washington Post. August 28, 1949. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Walzer, Philip (November 26, 2000). "SWEET BRIAR IN TOP TIER IN SURVEY OF COLLEGES". The Virginian Pilot. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
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- "Certificate for the Amendment to the Charter of Sweet Briar Institute, Granted by State Corporation of Commission, July 6, 1927". Archive.org. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Bulletin of Sweet Briar College: Sciences at Sweet Briar". Archive.org. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Bulletin of Sweet Briar College--Teaching at Sweet Briar". Archive.org. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Muhelfield, Elizabeth (July 31, 2005). "EDUCATION: TWO LEVELS, TWO VIEWS PRIVATE COLLEGES CHALLENGE, REWARD STUDENTS AFFORDABLY". Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Kapsidelis, Karin. "Sweet Briar College to close". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- dukechronicle.com, All women's colleges face challenges, March 17, 2015 (Retrieved 3-20-15)
- Allie Bidwell (March 3, 2015). "Declining Enrollments, Financial Pressure Force Two Liberal Arts Colleges to Close - US News". US News & World Report. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
[S]aid President James Jones Jr.: ['We reached] the unfortunate conclusion that there are two key realities that we could not change: the declining number of students choosing to attend small, rural, private liberal arts colleges and even fewer young women willing to consider a single-sex education . . . .
- Peter Galuszka (March 4, 2015). "Why Sweet Briar Is Closing". Styleweekly. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
Sweet Briar has offered strong academics, including engineering for its students, many of whom went on to top global jobs. It also had a reputation, admittedly dated, of being an Old South finishing school for affluent young women who enjoyed riding horses and the social whirl.
- Jacobs, Peter. "Here's the failed plan to save the Virginia college that ended up imploding". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Allie Bidwell (March 3, 2015). "Declining Enrollments, Financial Pressure Force Two Liberal Arts Colleges to Close - US News". US News & World Report. Retrieved March 19, 2015.
- Sherese Gore (March 18, 2015). "Uncertainty looms for Sweet Briar's on-campus homeowners, renters". Amherst New Era. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Peter Jacobs (March 16, 2015). "Something just doesn't add up with an imploding college's financials". Business Insider. Retrieved March 17, 2015.
- Ry Rivard (March 5, 2015). "Who Gets the Endowment?". Inside Higher Education. Retrieved March 8, 2015.
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- Ry Rivard (March 5, 2015). "Who Gets the Endowment?". Inside Higher Ed.
- Peter Jacobs (March 3, 2015). "Sweet Briar College closing: Why the wealthy Virginia school is closing its doors". Slate. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
- Ananda Rochita (March 6, 2015). "Alumnae make efforts to keep Sweet Briar College open". WSLS 10. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- Friedenberger, Amy. "Sweet Briar College Faculty Passes Resolution Opposing Closure," March 16, 2015. Roanoke Times. (Retrieved 3-17-2015)
- Pounds, Jesse. "Law firm sends letter asking Sweet Briar president, board to resign". News Advance (Lynchburg). Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "PRESS RELEASE: SAVING SWEET BRIAR ATTORNEY CITES VIOLATIONS OF LAW BY SWEET BRIAR COLLEGE AND CALLS ON PRESIDENT AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS TO RESIGN". Saving Sweet Briar. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- Taylor, Ashley L. "TROUTMAN SANDERS SENDS LETTER TO SBC COUNSEL REQUESTING PRESIDENT AND BOARD RESIGN POSITIONS IMMEDIATELY". Saving Sweet Briar.
- Karen Kapsidelis (March 24, 2015). "Sweet Briar board, president won't resign". Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- "Sweet Briar College Statement Regarding Troutman Sanders Letter". www.sbc.edu. Sweet Briar College. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Kapsidelis, Karin. "H-SC alums join Sweet Briar fight". Richmond Times Dispatch. Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- Greenberg, Molly. "Should Sweet Briar Shift Its Focus to STEM?". DCInno. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
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- Karen Kapsidelis. "Amherst Co. attorney seeks to block Sweet Briar College closure - Richmond.com: News". Richmond Times Dispatch. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Jesse Pounds (March 30, 2015). "Sweet Briar College alumna filing complaint against school, president". Newsadvance.com. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- Pounds, Jessie (March 30, 2015). "Faculty of Sweet Briar College votes no confidence in board, president". News Advance Lynchburg. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "SWEET BRIAR FACULTY UNANIMOUSLY REGISTER A VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE TOWARD PRESIDENT AND BOARD". Saving Sweet Briar. March 30, 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "Virginia Landmarks Register". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- archive.org, "The Ralph Adams Cram Architecture of Sweet Briar College," Chambers, S. Allen Jr., 1995 (Retrieved 3-17-15)
- History Sweet Briar College. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
- Geoffrey B. Henry (February 1994). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Sweet Briar House"., Accompanying photo and Accompanying map
- Wells, Brant (March 13, 2013). "Sweet Briar researcher documents slave history". News Advance - Lynchburg. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "African American Heritage". Tusculum at Sweet Briar College. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Slave Cabin Research Grants Produce Results" (Vol 4, Issue 3). Tusculum Institute at Sweet Briar College Newsletter. July 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Sweet Briar College brought the bling to students and faculty before its demise". The College Fix.
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- lynchburgbusinessmag.com, "Engineering Program Moves into Accreditatio–Sweet Briar College celebrates recently acquired accreditation status," House, Megan L., November 2011, (Retrieved 3-21-15)
- nsf.gov, Science & Technology Policy Institute, "Portfolio Evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Grants Program for the Department-level Reform (DLF) of Undergraduate Engineering Education," Shipp, Mitchell, & Lal, January 2009, p. 108 (Retrieved 3-21-15)
- Residence Life Sweet Briar College. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
- "10 Fantastic Autumn Traditions Celebrated at Women's Colleges". The Huffington Post.
- "Traditions". sbc.edu.
- Outdoor Programs –SWEBOP Sweet Briar College. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
- Riding Sweet Briar College. Retrieved on 2008-06-06
- "Championship History". ANRC. 2014-05-05. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
- "Winning Tradition | Sweet Briar College". Sbc.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
- "Intercollegiate Horse Show Association: National Results". ihsainc.com. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Intercollegiate Horse Show Association: National Results". ihsainc.com. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- "Watch "TEDxSoMa - Leah Busque - From Social Networking to Service Networking" Video at TEDxTalks". ted.com.
- American Men and Women of Science. Gale. 2003. p. 109. ISBN 978-1414433004.
- "Welcoming Polly Sowell - Humanities Texas". humanitiestexas.org.
- "Emory Magazine". emory.edu.
- "Changing the Face of Medicine - Dr. Connie Myers Guion". nih.gov.
- "Reintroducing a practical visionary". Sweet Briar College News.
- sbc.edu, About, History, List of Presidents (Retrieved 3-16-15)
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