St. Petersburg, Florida
||It has been suggested that Disston Heights be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since June 2015.|
|St. Petersburg, Florida|
|City of St. Petersburg|
Downtown St. Petersburg in August 2008
|Nickname(s): "St. Pete"; "Florida's Sunshine City"|
|Motto: "Always in Season"|
Location in Pinellas County and the state of Florida
|Incorporated||February 29, 1892|
|Re-Incorporated as City||June 6, 1903|
|• Type||Strong Mayor-Commission|
|• Mayor||Rick Kriseman (D)|
|• City||137.6 sq mi (356.4 km2)|
|• Land||61.7 sq mi (159.9 km2)|
|• Water||75.9 sq mi (196.5 km2)|
|Elevation||44 ft (13.4 m)|
|• Density||3,967/sq mi (1,532/km2)|
|• Urban||2,441,770 (17th)|
|• Metro||2,870,569 (18th)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States. As of the 2013 census estimate, the population was 249,688,2 making St. Petersburg the 4th most populous city in the state of Florida and the largest city in Florida that is not a county seat3 (the city of Clearwater is the county seat). St. Petersburg is the second largest city in the Tampa Bay Area, after Tampa, composed of roughly 2.8 million residents,4 making it the second largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the state. It is also a popular vacation destination for both American and foreign tourists.
The city is often referred to by locals as St. Pete. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. St. Petersburg is governed by a mayor and city council.5
The city is located on a peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to mainland Florida to the north; with the city of Tampa to the east by causeways and bridges across Tampa Bay; and to Bradenton in the south by the Sunshine Skyway Bridge (Interstate 275), which traverses the mouth of the bay. It is also served by Interstates 175 and 375, which branch off I-275 into the southern and northern areas of downtown respectively. The Gandy Bridge, conceived by George Gandy and opened in 1924, was the first causeway to be built across Tampa Bay, connecting St. Petersburg and Tampa cities without a circuitous 43-mile (69 km) trip around the bay through Oldsmar.
With an average of some 361 days of sunshine each year, and a Guinness World Record for logging the most consecutive days of sunshine (768 days),67 it is nicknamed "The Sunshine City".8 Due to its good weather and low cost of living, the city has long been a popular retirement destination, although in recent years the population has moved in a much more youthful direction.9 American Style magazine ranked St. Petersburg its top mid-size city in 2011, citing its "vibrant" arts scene.10
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Attractions and points of interest
- 6 Sports
- 7 Crime
- 8 Education
- 9 Media
- 10 Transportation
- 11 Notable people
- 12 Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The city was co-founded by John C. Williams, formerly of Detroit, who purchased the land in 1876, and by Peter Demens, who was instrumental in bringing the terminus of a railroad there in 1888. St. Petersburg was incorporated on February 29, 1892, when it had a population of only some 300 people.
It was named after Saint Petersburg, Russia, where Peter Demens had spent half of his youth. A local legend says that John C. Williams and Peter Demens flipped a coin to see who would have the honor of naming the city.11 Peter Demens won and named the city after his home, while John C. Williams named the first hotel after his birthplace, Detroit (a hotel built by Demens12). The Detroit Hotel still exists downtown, but has been turned into a condominium. The oldest running hotels are the historic Pier Hotel, built in 1921, formally Hotel Cordova and The Heritage Hotel, built in 1926.
Philadelphia publisher F. A. Davis turned on St. Petersburg's first electrical service in 1897 and its first trolley service in 1904.13 The city's first major industry was born in 1899 when Henry W. Hibbs (1862–1942), a native of Newport, North Carolina, established his wholesale fish business at the end of the railroad pier, which extended out to the shipping channel. Within a year, Hibbs Fish Company was shipping more than 1,000 pounds (450 kg) of fish each day.
Dredging of a deeper shipping channel from 1906 to 1908 opened St. Petersburg to larger shipping. Further dredging improved the port facilities through the 1910s. By then the city's population had quadrupled to 4,127.
In 1914, airplane service across Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg to Tampa and back was initiated, generally considered the first scheduled commercial airline flight. The company name was the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, and the pilot was Tony Jannus, flying a Benoist XIV flying boat. The Tony Jannus Award is presented annually for outstanding achievement in the airline industry. Jannus Live, a local music/entertainment venue on Central Avenue in downtown, is also named after him.
The city population continued to multiply during the 20th century, booming in the 1940s and 1950s and through the 1970s as the town became a popular retirement destination for Americans from midwestern cities, reaching 238,647 in the 1980 census. By that time, however, the population had levelled off, and has grown by only 10,000 since then. In the decade from 2000 to 2010, the population of the city dropped by approximately 4000 residents, while in the same period the population of Florida increased by over two and a half million residents.14
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 137.6 square miles (356.4 km2). 61.7 square miles (159.9 km2) of it is land, and 75.9 square miles (196.5 km2) of it (55.13%) is water.15
Downtown St. Petersburg is the Central Business District, containing high rises for office use, most notably the tallest building in the city, One Progress Plaza. The Tampa Bay Times newspaper is headquartered in the downtown area.1617 The Poynter Institute, which owns the paper, is located on 3rd Street S.
The Mahaffey Theater complex, the Morean Arts Center, dozens of other art galleries, Haslam's Bookstore, The Coliseum, Palladium Theatre, and Jannus Landing are among the galleries and cultural venues featured downtown. Several prominent museums are located in the perimeter. Many of them have received notable accolades, including the Chihuly Collection presented by the Morean Arts Center, the Museum of Fine Arts, the Salvador Dali Museum, the Florida International Museum, the St. Petersburg Museum of History, and the Florida Holocaust Museum. The city hosts many outdoor festivals throughout the year.18
St. Petersburg's downtown has been rated among the best in the South.19 The area's beaches are a 10-mile (16 km) drive from downtown. Jutting a half mile into the bay was the St. Petersburg Pier, a major tourist attraction that offered various activities. The St. Petersburg Pier is currently closed until a replacement is chosen and built. Several proposals for a replacement design were considered and the lens design which was chosen by the International Design Competition Jury and accepted by City Council later had its contract terminated by a citywide election during the Summer of 2013.2021 Downtown also contains the University of South Florida St. Petersburg and a downtown branch of St. Petersburg College. The downtown perimeter includes several parks, most of which are waterfront or lakefront. Straub Park is nearly a half mile long, boasts a waterfront location, and is home of the St. Petersburg Museum of Fine Arts. The Vinoy Park Hotel has a bayfront location, a spot on the National Register of Historic Places, and an AAA Four-Diamond rating. It fronts Vinoy Park, which holds music festivals, including the Warped Tour. Nearby is the historic Tramor Cafeteria building, now part of the St. Petersburg Times. The city is connected via the Looper Trolley.
Most of the dining and nightlife can be found downtown on or near Central Avenue or Beach Drive along the waterfront. Venues include Jannus Live and the State Theatre. The active nightlife scene is credited to recent demographic and regulatory changes.2223 In 2010, the city council voted to extend bar hours until 3 A.M., identical to cross-bay "rival" Tampa.2425
Tropicana Field, home of Major League Baseball's Tampa Bay Rays, is located in the western part of downtown. Until 2008, the team played its spring training games at nearby Progress Energy Park. This setup was unique, making St. Petersburg the first city that played host to its baseball team during spring training as well as the regular season since the 1919 Philadelphia Athletics.26 At the end of 2007, there was a debate over a new stadium to be built on the downtown waterfront at the current Progress Energy Park site. This new ballpark would have an overhead sail to cool game-time temperatures and catch rain. Tropicana Field would be demolished and replaced with prime residential and retail space. Completion of the stadium was planned for 2012; however, the proposal has been tabled indefinitely while a community-based organization investigates all alternatives for new stadium construction.272829
The Wikimedia Foundation had been located in downtown St. Petersburg since its founding by Jimmy Wales. On September 25, 2007, the Foundation announced its move in late 2007 from St. Petersburg to the San Francisco Bay Area.3031
St. Petersburg has the third-largest dedicated public waterfront park system in North America,32 with a waterfront park system that stretches 7 miles (11 km) and is used year round for public events, festivals and other activities. In the early 20th century, citizens and city leaders engaged in a long and boisterous debate over the future of the young city's waterfront space, with one side advocating for commercial, port and industrial development and the other side advocating for a long-term commitment to parks and public access to the waterfront. The public access and park contingent won the debate when, on Christmas Eve 1909, the city announced the acquisition of the waterfront land that is encompassed by the waterfront park system.33
The city is also becoming one of the largest destinations in Florida for kiteboarding with locations such as Ft. De Soto Park, Pass-a-Grille, and Ten-Cent. St. Petersburg locals such as Billy Parker and Alex Fox have gained a reputation for being some of the best kiteboarders in the world.
St. Petersburg has more than 100 neighborhoods.
St. Petersburg has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), closely bordering a tropical savanna climate, with a definite rainy season from June through September. St. Petersburg, like the rest of the Tampa Bay area, is occasionally affected by tropical storms and hurricanes. However, the last time a hurricane directly struck the city was in 1946. Many portions of St. Petersburg, especially along the bay and in south St. Petersburg, have tropical microclimates. Royal palms and coconut palms, as well as other tropical plants, grow to maturity.
|Climate data for St. Petersburg|
|Record high °F (°C)||87
|Average high °F (°C)||70
|Daily mean °F (°C)||61
|Average low °F (°C)||53
|Record low °F (°C)||25
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||2.3
|St. Petersburg Demographics|
|2010 Census||St. Petersburg||Pinellas County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||−1.4%||−0.5%||+17.6%|
|Population density||3,964.4/sq mi||3,347.5/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)||68.7%||82.1%||75.0%|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||64.3%||76.9%||57.9%|
|Black or African-American||23.9%||10.3%||16.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||6.6%||8.0%||22.5%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.3%||0.3%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.1%||0.1%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (Multiracial)||2.5%||2.2%||2.5%|
|Some Other Race||1.3%||2.0%||3.6%|
As of 2010, there were 129,401 households out of which 15.9% were vacant. As of 2000, 23.85% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.295% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no adult living partner present, and 43.8% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.865.
In 2000, the city's population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.24 years. For every 100 females there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
As of 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $34,597, and the median income for a family was $43,198. Males had a median income of $30,794 versus $27,860 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,107. About 9.2% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.1% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. In 2010 17.8% of the population was under the poverty line, including 32.2% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2000, those who spoke only English at home accounted were 88.53% of residents, Spanish was spoken by 4.43%, German by 0.78%, French by 0.72% of speakers, Vietnamese by 0.67%, Serbo-Croatian by 0.52%, and Laotian by 0.51% of the population.38
According to the City's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,39 the largest employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|2||All Children's Hospital||3,000|
|3||Home Shopping Network||2,500|
|4||Bayfront Medical Center||2,000|
|5||Fidelity National Information Services||1,700|
|6||Bright House Networks||1,600|
|8||St. Anthony's Hospital||1,200|
|9||Transamerica Life Insurance Company||1,000|
The city has a children's museum (Great Explorations), Museum of Fine Arts, and will soon host the Museum of the American Arts and Crafts Movement (expected to open in 2017),40 The St. Petersburg Museum of History (which has a full-size replica of the Benoist XIV seaplane and is located near the approximate spot by the St. Petersburg Pier where the first scheduled commercial flight departed), a Holocaust Museum, and the Salvador Dali Museum, which houses the largest collection of Dalí's works outside of Europe, including a number of famous and large-scale paintings such as The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. The Chihuly Collection at 400 Beach Drive houses some of the magnificent glass sculptures of Dale Chihuly. There are also various other smaller art galleries and entertainment venues, especially in the downtown area, which has seen a boom in development since the mid-1990s; these include the Mahaffey Theater complex, American Stage (an equity regional theater), The Coliseum, and Palladium Theatre, and the Midtown Royal Theater, The Arts Center, and the Florida Craftsmen Gallery.
The St. Petersburg Pier was a popular tourist attraction, which is now closed (since May 2013). The Bounty, a replica of HMS Bounty that was used in the 1962 Technicolor remake of Mutiny on the Bounty, starring Marlon Brando, was permanently docked near the Pier for many years until the ship was sold to Ted Turner in 1986.41 The Bounty, however, sometimes visited St. Petersburg for the winter in the following years before its sinking in 2012.42 In 2010, the St. Petersburg City Council voted to demolish and rebuild the pier within two years.
The city had a Madame Tussaud Wax Museum between 1963 and 1989.
Downtown is the location of the Sundial shopping complex which opened in May 2014.43 It contains an IMAX Muvico 20-screen movie theater, as well as many (soon to be built) chain restaurants and retail shops, catering to more of a middle and upper class audience. The Shops at St. Pete will also be a nightlife destination, although it is less well attended than the block surrounding Jannus Live, just south of The Shops at St. Pete. Central Avenue, from the Yacht Club west to 8th Street, is also both more vibrant and "organic" than The Shops at St. Pete with the exception of a couple underdeveloped blocks. Restaurants serving ethnic and domestic culinary specialties can be found throughout the downtown area. Every Saturday morning, from October to May, the downtown area hosts a farmers' market in the parking area of Al Lang Stadium (formerly Progress Energy Park). Local vendors sell the fruits of their labors (whether edible or decorative) alongside artists of all kinds including live music.
Due west of downtown on Central Avenue is a district called the 600 Block Arts District. It is made up of Bohemian art and clothing stores. The eve-N-odd gallery is located in the historic Crislip Arcade built in 1925. This recently refurbished shopping arcade is one of 13 original city arcades. Only three are left and only the Crislip arcade is still being used as a place for small businesses to set up shop! Shop in the Crislip arcade for local art and unique wonders. Further west is the Grand Central District (within Historic Kenwood District). It is known for its artistic community, LGBT presence, and hosting of the annual St. Pete Pride parade.44 Haslam's Bookstore can also be found in the Grand Central District. It is the largest independent bookstore in Florida with over 30,000 square feet.45 Like its name implies, Old Northeast is adjacent to downtown from the northeast. It is known for its historic status and eclectic architecture.4647 Roser Park is another historic district, located just south of downtown. It is known for its stately architecture and somewhat dubiously for its proximity to the "South Side". Together, these areas comprise the urban core of St. Petersburg.4849
North of downtown is the Great Explorations Children's Museum, an interactive museum featuring a Children's Village with giant pretend stores, fire house and pet vet clinic, and preschool, science, music, art, and water exhibits. The museum is located next to Sunken Gardens. 4th Street as a whole, from Downtown up to Gandy Boulevard, is home to many restaurants and bars running the gamut from fast food to haute cuisine. This area is called the "Garden District", although as of 2010 this name is not widely in use.50
Boyd Hill Nature Park, located on Lake Maggiore, is a 245-acre (0.99 km2) preserve where one can see many of the endangered plants and rare wildlife of Tampa Bay. There is a bird exhibit which houses bald eagles, owls, hawks, and other species.
St. Petersburg is well regarded for its beaches. In 2005, Fort De Soto was rated the number one beach in America by the annual Dr. Beach rankings.51 TripAdvisor had the beach ranked number one in the nation for 2008.52 Also noted for its arts community, St. Petersburg regularly places top 25 in the nation among arts destinations53 Recently, St. Petersburg has become known and regarded as one of America's most livable cities.54
The area's main shopping mall is Tyrone Square Mall, constructed in 1972 and is located in the northwestern part of the city.
St. Petersburg has occasionally been used as a filming location for films over the years.
Dolphin Tale 1 & 2 (2011, 2014)
- Spring Breakers (2013)
- Loren Cass (2006)
- Ocean's Eleven (2001)
- Summer Rental (1985)
- Cocoon (1985)
- Once Upon a Time in America (1984)
The Tampa-St. Petersburg area is represented by teams in four major professional sports (soccer, football, baseball, and hockey). Two teams, the Tampa Bay Rays of Major League Baseball and Tampa Bay Rowdies of the North American Soccer League play in St. Petersburg proper, while the other two teams play across the bay in Tampa. All of the teams represent the entire Tampa Bay metropolitan area.
The Rays began play in 1998, finishing last in the American League's East Division in nine of the first ten seasons they played, including their last year known as the "Devil Rays": 2007. However, in 2008, their 11th season, they held off the Boston Red Sox and won the AL East Division Championship for the first time. In the playoffs, they again faced the Red Sox in the ALCS. They defeated Boston and won the American League Pennant. However, they lost to the Philadelphia Phillies in the 2008 World Series.
From their inception until 2008, the Rays played their regular season games at Tropicana Field and their spring training games at historic Al Lang Stadium, formerly Progress Energy Park, giving them the unique distinction of being the only team in Major League Baseball that played its spring training games in their home city in more than 70 years. However, starting in 2009, the Rays have held spring training at Charlotte Sports Park in Port Charlotte, ending a 94-year streak of springtime baseball in the city.
Tropicana Field, the home venue of the Rays, played host to the 1999 Final Four. St. Petersburg is also home to the Firestone Grand Prix of St. Petersburg, the inaugural race was held in April 2005. The circuit itself is made of downtown streets passing Progress Energy Park, the marina, and a runway in Albert Whitted Airport, and streets are temporarily blocked off for the annual Indy Racing League's IndyCar Series race. The race has been confirmed to return every year until at least 2017.55 In 2012, the road intersecting Turn 10 was renamed Dan Wheldon Way in memory of Dan Wheldon, who won the 2005 race thanks to a move made on that turn. Wheldon was killed in an accident at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway in the 2011 season finale.
The Tampa Bay Rowdies of the North American Soccer League began to play at Al Lang Stadium in April 2011, moving from George M. Steinbrenner Field after the 2010 season. They initially were going to play at Al Lang Stadium for 2 years 56 however, on September 12, 2012, the Rowdies announced that they would be play at Al Lang stadium for a further 4 years.57
St. Petersburg is the home of many past and present sports icons. WBC and IBF Light Middleweight Champion Ronald "Winky" Wright and IBF, IBO, and WBO Champion Jeff Lacy hail from the area. Ernest Givins, Stacey Simmons, William Floyd, and Pat Terrell are some of the famous retired National Football League players from the city. Shaun King, Marquell Blackell, Aveion Cason, Darren Howard, Tim Carter, Kenny Heatly, and DeAndrew Rubin are some players currently in the NFL from the city. Major League Baseball pitcher Doug Waechter is also from St. Pete, as well as Minnesota Twins pitcher Boof Bonser. Indy Racing League driver and two-time Indianapolis 500 champion Dan Wheldon (2005 and 2011) resided in St. Pete prior to his death in October 2011.
The Bay Area Pelicans Rugby Football Club has made their home in St. Petersburg since 1977. The Pelicans play in USA Rugby's Division II competing against teams throughout Florida and the United States. Throughout its history, the teams have won honors as Florida Cup Champions as well as berths in National Championship Tournaments.citation needed
The International Shuffleboard Association was founded in St. Petersburg in 1979.
St. Petersburg has the 4th highest rate of violent crime in Florida, and the lowest number of murder/manslaughter offenses of the top 5 violent crime cities in Florida.60 It is the 58th ranking city in the United States when it comes to violent crime.61 It is less safe than 95% of cities in the United States.62 Evidence of the social unrest and the schism within the city, particularly between South St. Petersburg and the rest of the city came with the St. Petersburg, Florida riot of 1996. A recent and notable murder in the city was the murder of Police Officer David Crawford by then-teenager Nicholas Lindsey.
Public primary and secondary schools in St. Petersburg are administered by Pinellas County Schools. Public high schools within the city limits include:
Private high schools include:
- Canterbury School of Florida
- St. Petersburg Catholic High School
- Shorecrest Preparatory School
- St. Petersburg Collegiate High School
- Keswick Christian School
- Admiral Farragut Academy
- Northside Christian School
St. Petersburg is home to several institutions of higher education. The University of South Florida St. Petersburg is an autonomous campus in the University of South Florida system. The University of South Florida St. Petersburg serves 6,500 students. Eckerd College, founded in 1958, is a private four-year liberal arts college.64 St. Petersburg College is a state college in the Florida College System.65 Also in St. Petersburg is the Poynter Institute, a journalism institute which owns the St. Petersburg Times in a unique arrangement.66 Also, Stetson Law School is located in Gulfport, which is adjacent to St Pete between the south beaches.
The city's main daily morning newspapers are the Tampa Bay Times as well as its free daily sister publication tbt*. Other newspapers available in the area are the daily St. Petersburg Tribune and the free weekly alternative newspaper Creative Loafing. iLovetheBurg.com is an award-winning and popular online source of information for downtown St. Petersburg.
St. Petersburg is in the Tampa-St. Petersburg television and radio markets. WTSP channel 10 (CBS) and WTOG channel 44 (The CW) are licensed to St. Petersburg, with studios in unincorporated Pinellas County in the Gandy Boulevard area just north of the St. Petersburg limits. Bay News 9, the local cable TV news service, is based in northeast St. Petersburg. Independent station WTTA is licensed to St. Petersburg, with studios in Tampa. Official city government programming, known as StPeteTV, can be found on Bright House Networks Cable on Channel 615, WOW! Cable on Channel 15 or Verizon FiOS Channel 20 as well as online at www.stpete.org/stpetetv. In 2013 the city of St. Petersburg sold its broadcast licence to WSPF-CD channel 38.
Nearby Tampa International Airport provides air transportation for most passengers. Smaller airlines, with destinations to smaller cities and towns, operate at St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport, with most tenants providing only seasonal services. Albert Whitted Airport provides general aviation services near the heart of downtown St. Pete.
CSX Transportation operates a former Atlantic Coast Line Railroad branch line which sees daily rail traffic from north Tampa though Safety Harbor, Clearwater, and Largo. As of March 2008, the portion that ran into downtown St. Petersburg and the adjacent western industrial areas was abandoned. There is a small rail yard to the northwest of downtown St. Petersburg at the new end of the rail line with several spur lines serving industries in the area.
Notable former stations include the St. Petersburg ACL station, which became an Amtrak station from 1971 to 1983, St. Petersburg Seaboard Air Line Passenger Station, and the St. Petersburg Seaboard Coast Line station.
===Sea=== Port of St. Petersburg
- Takamatsu, Japan
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- "Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by City 2012". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by State 2012". Retrieved October 9, 2013.
- "St Petersburg Crime Percentile". Retrieved March 21, 2013.
- "Science Center website". Sciencecenterofpinellas.org. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- Anderson, Anne W. (2009). Insiders' Guide to the Greater Tampa Bay Area. Globe Pequot. p. 263. ISBN 0-7627-5347-1. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
- Anderson, Anne W. (2009). Insiders' Guide to the Greater Tampa Bay Area. Globe Pequot. p. 264. ISBN 0-7627-5347-1. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
- Barnes, Andrew "Who owns the St.Petersburg Times? Why it matters to readers". http://www.poynter.org/uncategorized/1681/who-owns-the-st-petersburg-times-why-it-matters-to-readers/, December 26, 1999. Retrieved 12-5-12.
- Anderson, Anne W. (2009). Insiders' Guide to the Greater Tampa Bay Area. Globe Pequot. pp. 263–265. ISBN 0-7627-5347-1. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
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