|Silver in the periodic table|
|lustrous white metal
Electrolytically refined silver
|Name, symbol, number||silver, Ag, 47|
|Element category||transition metal|
|Group, period, block||11, 5, d|
|Standard atomic weight||107.8682|
|Electron configuration||Kr 4d10 5s1
2, 8, 18, 18, 1
|Discovery||before 5000 BC|
|Density (near r.t.)||10.49 g·cm−3|
|Liquid density at m.p.||9.320 g·cm−3|
|Melting point||1234.93 K, 961.78 °C, 1763.2 °F|
|Boiling point||2435 K, 2162 °C, 3924 °F|
|Heat of fusion||11.28 kJ·mol−1|
|Heat of vaporization||250.58 kJ·mol−1|
|Molar heat capacity||25.350 J·mol−1·K−1|
|Oxidation states||1, 2, 3 (amphoteric oxide)|
|Electronegativity||1.93 (Pauling scale)|
|Ionization energies||1st: 731.0 kJ·mol−1|
|2nd: 2070 kJ·mol−1|
|3rd: 3361 kJ·mol−1|
|Atomic radius||144 pm|
|Covalent radius||145±5 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||172 pm|
|Crystal structure||face-centered cubic|
|Electrical resistivity||(20 °C) 15.87 nΩ·m|
|Thermal conductivity||429 W·m−1·K−1|
|Thermal diffusivity||(300 K) 174 mm²/s|
|Thermal expansion||(25 °C) 18.9 µm·m−1·K−1|
|Speed of sound (thin rod)||(r.t.) 2680 m·s−1|
|Young's modulus||83 GPa|
|Shear modulus||30 GPa|
|Bulk modulus||100 GPa|
|Vickers hardness||251 MPa|
|Brinell hardness||206 MPa|
|CAS registry number||7440-22-4|
|Most stable isotopes|
|Main article: Isotopes of silver|
Silver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργυρος árguros, Latin: argentum, both from the Indo-European root *arg- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, used in currency coins, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware) and as an investment in the forms of coins and bullion. Silver metal is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research into clinical potential continues.
- 1 Characteristics
- 2 Isotopes
- 3 Compounds
- 4 Applications
- 5 History
- 6 Occurrence and extraction
- 7 Price
- 8 Human exposure and consumption
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Silver is produced from lighter elements in the Universe through the r-process, a form of nuclear fusion believed to take place during certain types of supernova explosions. This produces many elements heavier than iron, of which silver is one.2
Silver is a very ductile, malleable (slightly harder than gold), monovalent coinage metal, with a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high degree of polish. It has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals, even higher than copper, but its greater cost has prevented it from being widely used in place of copper for electrical purposes. An exception to this is in radio-frequency engineering, particularly at VHF and higher frequencies, where silver plating to improve electrical conductivity of parts, including wires, is widely employed. During World War II in the US, 13,540 tons were used in the electromagnets used for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper.345
Among metals, pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity (the nonmetal carbon in the form of diamond and superfluid helium II are higher) and one of the highest optical reflectivities.6 (Aluminium slightly outdoes silver in parts of the visible spectrum, and silver is a poor reflector of ultraviolet). Silver is the best conductor of heat and electricity of any metal on the periodic table. Silver also has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver halides are photosensitive and are remarkable for their ability to record a latent image that can later be developed chemically. Silver is stable in pure air and water, but tarnishes when it is exposed to air or water containing ozone or hydrogen sulfide, the latter forming a black layer of silver sulfide which can be cleaned off with dilute hydrochloric acid.7 The most common oxidation state of silver is +1 (for example, silver nitrate, AgNO3); the less common +2 compounds (for example, silver(II) fluoride, AgF2), and the even less common +3 (for example, potassium tetrafluoroargentate(III), KAgF4) and even +4 compounds (for example, potassium hexafluoroargentate(IV), K2AgF6)8 are also known.
Naturally occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being slightly more abundant (51.839% natural abundance). Silver's isotopes are almost equal in abundance, something which is rare in the periodic table. Silver's atomic weight is 107.8682(2) g/mol.910 Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, and 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. This element has numerous meta states, the most stable being 108mAg (t1/2 = 418 years), 110mAg (t1/2 = 249.79 days) and 106mAg (t1/2 = 8.28 days). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, and the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes.
Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 93.943 (94Ag) to 126.936 (127Ag);11 the primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 107Ag, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay products before 107Ag are palladium (element 46) isotopes, and the primary products after are cadmium (element 48) isotopes.
The palladium isotope 107Pd decays by beta emission to 107Ag with a half-life of 6.5 million years. Iron meteorites are the only objects with a high-enough palladium-to-silver ratio to yield measurable variations in 107Ag abundance. Radiogenic 107Ag was first discovered in the Santa Clara meteorite in 1978.12 The discoverers suggest the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10 million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd–107Ag correlations observed in bodies that have clearly been melted since the accretion of the solar system must reflect the presence of unstable nuclides in the early solar system.13
Silver metal dissolves readily in nitric acid (HNO
3) to produce silver nitrate (AgNO
3), a transparent crystalline solid that is photosensitive and readily soluble in water. Silver nitrate is used as the starting point for the synthesis of many other silver compounds, as an antiseptic, and as a yellow stain for glass in stained glass. Silver metal does not react with sulfuric acid, which is used in jewelry-making to clean and remove copper oxide firescale from silver articles after silver soldering or annealing. Silver reacts readily with sulfur or hydrogen sulfide H
2S to produce silver sulfide, a dark-colored compound familiar as the tarnish on silver coins and other objects. Silver sulfide Ag
2S also forms silver whiskers when silver electrical contacts are used in an atmosphere rich in hydrogen sulfide.
- 4 Ag + O2 + 2 H2S → 2 Ag2S + 2 H2O
Silver chloride (AgCl) is precipitated from solutions of silver nitrate in the presence of chloride ions, and the other silver halides used in the manufacture of photographic emulsions are made in the same way, using bromide or iodide salts. Silver chloride is used in glass electrodes for pH testing and potentiometric measurement, and as a transparent cement for glass. Silver iodide has been used in attempts to seed clouds to produce rain.7 Silver halides are highly insoluble in aqueous solutions and are used in gravimetric analytical methods.
Silver oxide (Ag
2O), produced when silver nitrate solutions are treated with a base, is used as a positive electrode (anode) in watch batteries. Silver carbonate (Ag
3) is precipitated when silver nitrate is treated with sodium carbonate (Na
- 2 AgNO3 + 2 OH− → Ag2O + H2O + 2 NO3−
- 2 AgNO3 + Na2CO3 → Ag2CO3 + 2 NaNO3
Silver fulminate (AgONC), a powerful, touch-sensitive explosive used in percussion caps, is made by reaction of silver metal with nitric acid in the presence of ethanol (C
5OH). Other dangerously explosive silver compounds are silver azide (AgN
3), formed by reaction of silver nitrate with sodium azide (NaN
3),15 and silver acetylide, formed when silver reacts with acetylene gas.
Latent images formed in silver halide crystals are developed by treatment with alkaline solutions of reducing agents such as hydroquinone, metol (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate) or ascorbate, which reduce the exposed halide to silver metal. Alkaline solutions of silver nitrate can be reduced to silver metal by reducing sugars such as glucose, and this reaction is used to silver glass mirrors and the interior of glass Christmas ornaments. Silver halides are soluble in solutions of sodium thiosulfate (Na
3) which is used as a photographic fixer, to remove excess silver halide from photographic emulsions after image development.14
Silver metal is attacked by strong oxidizers such as potassium permanganate (KMnO
4) and potassium dichromate (K
7), and in the presence of potassium bromide (KBr); these compounds are used in photography to bleach silver images, converting them to silver halides that can either be fixed with thiosulfate or redeveloped to intensify the original image. Silver forms cyanide complexes (silver cyanide) that are soluble in water in the presence of an excess of cyanide ions. Silver cyanide solutions are used in electroplating of silver.14
Although silver normally has oxidation state +1 in compounds, other oxidation states are known, such as +3 in AgF
3, produced by the reaction of elemental silver or silver fluoride with krypton difluoride.16
Many well-known uses of silver involve its precious metal properties, including currency, decorative items, and mirrors. The contrast between its bright white color and other media makes it very useful to the visual arts. It has also long been used to confer high monetary value as objects (such as silver coins and investment bars) or make objects symbolic of high social or political rank. Silver salts have been used since the Middle Ages to produce a yellow or orange colours to stained glass, and more complex decorative colour reactions can be produced by incorporating silver metal in blown, kilnformed or torchworked glass.17
Silver, in the form of electrum (a gold–silver alloy), was coined to produce money around 700 BC by the Lydians. Later, silver was refined and coined in its pure form. Many nations used silver as the basic unit of monetary value. In the modern world, silver bullion has the ISO currency code XAG. The name of the pound sterling (£) reflects the fact it originally represented the value of one pound Tower weight of sterling silver; other historical currencies, such as the French livre, have similar etymologies. During the 19th century, the bimetallism that prevailed in most countries was undermined by the discovery of large deposits of silver in the Americas; fearing a sharp decrease in the value of silver and thus the currency, most states switched to a gold standard by 1900. In some languages, such as Sanskrit, Spanish, French, and Hebrew, the same word means both silver and money.
The 20th century saw a gradual movement to fiat currency, with most of the world monetary system losing its link to precious metals after Richard Nixon took the United States dollar off the gold standard in 1971; the last currency backed by gold was the Swiss franc, which became a pure fiat currency on 1 May 2000. During this same period, silver gradually ceased to be used in circulating coins. In 1964, the United States stopped minting their silver dime and quarter. They minted their last circulating silver coin in 1970 in its 40% half-dollar.18
In 1968, Canada minted their last circulating silver coins which were the 50% dime and the 50% quarter. The Royal Canadian Mint still makes many collectible silver coins with various dollar denominations.
Jewelry and silverware are traditionally made from sterling silver (standard silver), an alloy of 92.5% silver with 7.5% copper. In the US, only an alloy consisting of at least 90.0% fine silver can be marketed as "silver" (thus frequently stamped 900). Sterling silver (stamped 925) is harder than pure silver, and has a lower melting point (893°C) than either pure silver or pure copper.7 Britannia silver is an alternative, hallmark-quality standard containing 95.8% silver, often used to make silver tableware and wrought plate. With the addition of germanium, the patented modified alloy Argentium Sterling silver is formed, with improved properties, including resistance to firescale.
Sterling silver jewelry is often plated with a thin coat of .999 fine silver to give the item a shiny finish. This process is called "flashing". Silver jewelry can also be plated with rhodium (for a bright, shiny look) or gold (to produce silver gilt).
Silver is a constituent of almost all colored carat gold alloys and carat gold solders, giving the alloys paler color and greater hardness.20 White 9 carat gold contains 62.5% silver and 37.5% gold, while 22 carat gold contains a minimum of 91.7% gold and 8.3% silver or copper or other metals.20
Historically, the training and guild organization of goldsmiths included silversmiths, as well, and the two crafts remain largely overlapping. Unlike blacksmiths, silversmiths do not shape the metal while it is red-hot, but instead, work it at room temperature with gentle and carefully placed hammer blows. The essence of silversmithing is to take a flat piece of metal and to transform it into a useful object using different hammers, stakes and other simple tools.21
While silversmiths specialize in, and principally work silver, they also work with other metals, such as gold, copper, steel, and brass. They make jewelry, silverware, armor, vases, and other artistic items. Because silver is such a malleable metal, silversmiths have a large range of choices with how they prefer to work the metal. Historically, silversmiths are mostly referred to as goldsmiths, which was usually the same guild. In the western Canadian silversmith tradition, guilds do not exist; however, mentoring through colleagues becomes a method of professional learning within a community of craftspeople.22
Traditionally, silversmiths mostly made "silverware" (cutlery, tableware, bowls, candlesticks and such). Only in more recent times has silversmithing become mainly work in jewelry, as much less solid silver tableware is now handmade.
Silver can be alloyed with mercury at room temperature to make amalgams that are widely used for dental fillings. To make dental amalgam, a mixture of powdered silver and other metals such as tin and gold is mixed with mercury to make a stiff paste that can be adapted to the shape of a cavity. The dental amalgam achieves initial hardness within minutes, and sets hard in a few hours.
Photography used 30.98% of the silver consumed in 1998 in the form of silver nitrate and silver halides. In 2001, 23.47% was used for photography, while 20.03% was used in jewelry, 38.51% for industrial uses, and only 3.5% for coins and medals. The use of silver in photography has rapidly declined, due to the lower demand for consumer color film from the advent of digital technology; since 2007, of the 907 million ounces of silver in supply, just 117.6 million ounces (13%) were consumed by the photographic sector, about 50% of the amount used in photography in 1998. By 2010, the supply had increased by about 10% to 1056.8 million ounces, of which 72.7 million ounces were used in the photographic sector, a decline of 38% compared with 2007.23
Some electrical and electronic products use silver for its superior conductivity, even when tarnished. The primary example of this is in high quality RF connectors. The increase in conductivity is also taken advantage of in RF engineering at VHF and higher frequencies, where conductors often cannot be scaled by 6%, due to tuning requirements, e.g. cavity filters. As an additional example, printed circuits and RFID antennas can be made using silver paints,724 and computer keyboards use silver electrical contacts. Silver cadmium oxide is used in high-voltage contacts because it can withstand arcing.
Some manufacturers produce audio connector cables, speaker wires, and power cables using silver conductors, which have a 6% higher conductivity than ordinary copper ones of identical dimensions, but cost much more. Though debatable, many hi-fi enthusiasts believe silver wires improve sound quality.citation needed
Small devices, such as hearing aids and watches, commonly use silver oxide batteries due to their long life and high energy-to-weight ratio. Another usage is high-capacity silver-zinc and silver-cadmium batteries.
Mirrors which need superior reflectivity for visible light are commonly made with silver as the reflecting material in a process called silvering, though common mirrors are backed with aluminium. Using a process called sputtering, silver, along with other optically transparent layers, is applied to glass, creating low emissivity coatings used in high-performance insulated glazing. The amount of silver used per window is small because the silver layer is only 10–15 nanometers thick.25 However, the amount of silver-coated glass worldwide is hundreds of millions of square meters per year, leading to silver consumption on the order of 10 cubic meters or 100 metric tons/year. Silver color seen in architectural glass and tinted windows on vehicles is produced by sputtered chrome, stainless steel or other alloys. Silver is seldom used as the reflector in telescope mirrors, where aluminum is generally preferred because it is cheaper and less susceptible to tarnishing and corrosion.26 Silver is the reflective coating of choice for solar reflectors.27
Silver and silver alloys are used in the construction of high-quality musical wind instruments of many types.28 Flutes, in particular, are commonly constructed of silver alloy or silver plated, both for appearance and for the frictional surface properties of silver.29
Silver's catalytic properties make it ideal for use as a catalyst in oxidation reactions, for example, the production of formaldehyde from methanol and air by means of silver screens or crystallites containing a minimum 99.95 weight-percent silver. Silver (upon some suitable support) is probably the only catalyst available today to convert ethylene to ethylene oxide (later hydrolyzed to ethylene glycol, used for making polyesters)— an important industrial reaction. It is also used in the Oddy test to detect reduced sulfur compounds and carbonyl sulfides.
Because silver readily absorbs free neutrons, it is commonly used to make control rods to regulate the fission chain reaction in pressurized water nuclear reactors, generally in the form of an alloy containing 80% silver, 15% indium, and 5% cadmium.
Silver is used to make solder and brazing alloys, and as a thin layer on bearing surfaces can provide a significant increase in galling resistance and reduce wear under heavy load, particularly against steel.
Silver stains are used in biology to increase the contrast and visibility of cells and organelles in microscopy. Camillo Golgi used silver stains to study cells of the nervous system and the Golgi apparatus.30 Silver stains are used to stain proteins in gel electrophoresis and polyacrylamide gels, either as primary stains or to enhance the visibility and contrast of colloidal gold stain.31
The medical uses of silver include its incorporation into wound dressings, and its use as an antibiotic coating in medical devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials may be used to treat external infections. Silver is also used in some medical applications, such as urinary catheters and endotracheal breathing tubes, where there is tentative evidence that it is effective in reducing catheter-related urinary tract infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia respectively.3233 The silver ion (Ag+
) is bioactive and in sufficient concentration readily kills bacteria in vitro. Silver and silver nanoparticles are used as an antimicrobial in a variety of industrial, healthcare and domestic applications.34
Silver coins and bullion are used for investing. Mints sell a wide variety of silver products for investors and collectors. Various institutions provide safe storage for large physical silver investments, and various types of silver investments can be made on the stock markets, including mining stocks. Silver bullion bars are sold in a wide range of ounces, provided by various mints and mines around the world. Silver coins and bullion bars are generally 99.9% pure, and labeled with ".999".
Silver inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi on clothing, such as socks, so is sometimes added to reduce odors and the risk of bacterial and fungal infections. It is incorporated into clothing or shoes either by integrating silver nanoparticles into the polymer from which yarns are made or by coating yarns with silver.3536 The loss of silver during washing varies between textile technologies, and the resultant effect on the environment is not yet fully known.3738
Silver has been used for thousands of years for ornaments and utensils, trade, and as the basis for many monetary systems. Its value as a precious metal was long considered second only to gold. The word "silver" appears in Anglo-Saxon in various spellings, such as seolfor and siolfor. A similar form is seen throughout the Germanic languages (compare Old High German silabar and silbir). The chemical symbol Ag is from the Latin word for "silver", argentum (compare Greek άργυρος, árgyros), from the Indo-European root *arg-, meaning "white" or "shining". Silver has been known since ancient times. Mentioned in the Book of Genesis, slag heaps found in Asia Minor and on the islands of the Aegean Sea indicate silver was being separated from lead as early as the 4th millennium BC using surface mining.7
The stability of the Roman currency relied to a high degree on the supply of silver bullion, which Roman miners produced on a scale unparalleled before the discovery of the New World. Reaching a peak production of 200 t per year, an estimated silver stock of 10,000 t circulated in the Roman economy in the middle of the second century AD, five to ten times larger than the combined amount of silver available to medieval Europe and the Caliphate around 800 AD.3940 Financial officials of the Roman Empire worried about the loss of silver to pay for highly demanded silk from Sinica (China).
Mines were made in Laureion during 483 BC.41
In the Gospels, Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot is infamous for having taken a bribe of 30 coins of silver from religious leaders in Jerusalem to turn Jesus of Nazareth over to soldiers of the High Priest Caiaphas.42
The Chinese Empire during most of its history primarily used silver as a means of exchange. In the 19th century, the threat to the balance of payments of the United Kingdom from Chinese merchants demanding payment in silver in exchange for tea, silk, and porcelain led to the Opium War because Britain had to find a way to address the imbalance in payments, and they decided to do so by selling opium produced in their colony of British India to China.43
Recorded use of silver to prevent infection dates to ancient Greece and Rome; it was rediscovered in the Middle Ages, when it was used for several purposes, such as to disinfect water and food during storage, and also for the treatment of burns and wounds as wound dressing. In the 19th century, sailors on long ocean voyages would put silver coins in barrels of water and wine to keep the liquid potable. Pioneers in America used the same idea as they made their journey from coast to coast. Silver solutions were approved in the 1920s by the US Food and Drug Administration for use as antibacterial agents.citation needed
In the Americas, high temperature silver-lead cupellation technology was developed by pre-Inca civilizations as early as AD 60–120.45
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2012)|
In European folklore, silver was considered a mystical element, and much like Cold Iron, was considered something of an anathema towards aspects of the supernatural. The myth of silver's mystical properties goes deep into human history. Silver is believed to have purifying effects, a belief that likely arose from the observation that water kept in a silver pitcher took longer to go scummy; in modern times, silver has been shown to have antibacterial properties.
As a noble metal akin to gold, this is often attributed to something along the lines of silver's "Incorruptible Pure Pureness". Due to the above, silver is almost always considered to be on the good end of magic (and items formed of it may also be "Made of Good"). In some traditions of Neopaganism, silver is the metal associated with the powers of the Moon, symbolizes the light of the moon, representing the feminine energies of the Triple Goddess. In Francis Barret's The Magus, it is said to make the bearer "amiable, pleasent, cheerful and honoured, removing all malice and ill-will; it causes security in a journey, increases the riches, and health of body drives away enemies..." In rituals, silver is said to encourage a harmonious energy and a sense of peace.
In folklore, and now later in fiction, the metal is said to do many things, from channel magic, to stopping evil (including warding off or harming vampires and werewolves), making magic mirrors, to turning water into a "Healing Potion". Throughout mythology and subsequent fiction, silver has been a common ward against evil. Silver, especially if blessed, was thought to ward off or harm certain supernatural beings (including vampires) since the Middle Ages.
During World War II, the short supply of copper led to the substitution of silver in many industrial applications. The United States government loaned out silver from its massive reserve located in the West Point vaults to a wide range of industrial users. One very important use was for bus bars for new aluminum plants needed to make aircraft. During the war, many electrical connectors and switches were silver plated. Another use was aircraft master rod bearings and other types of bearings. Since silver can replace tin in solder at a lower volume, a large amount of tin was freed up for other uses by substituting government silver. Silver was also used as the reflector in searchlights and other types of lights. One high-tech use of silver was for conductors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory used in calutrons to isolate uranium as part of the Manhattan project. (After the war ended, the silver was returned to the vaults.)46 Silver was used in nickels during the war to save that metal for use in steel alloys.47
Silver is found in native form, as an alloy with gold (electrum), and in ores containing sulfur, arsenic, antimony or chlorine. Ores include argentite (Ag2S), chlorargyrite (AgCl) which includes horn silver, and pyrargyrite (Ag3SbS3). The principal sources of silver are the ores of copper, copper-nickel, lead, and lead-zinc obtained from Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, China, Australia, Chile, Poland and Serbia.7 Peru, Bolivia and Mexico have been mining silver since 1546, and are still major world producers. Top silver-producing mines are Cannington (Australia), Fresnillo (Mexico), San Cristobal (Bolivia), Antamina (Peru), Rudna (Poland), and Penasquito (Mexico).48 Top near-term mine development projects through 2015 are Pascua Lama (Chile), Navidad (Argentina), Jaunicipio (Mexico), Malku Khota (Bolivia),49 and Hackett River (Canada).48 In Central Asia, Tajikistan is known to have some of the largest silver deposits in the world.50
The metal is primarily produced as a byproduct of electrolytic copper refining, gold, nickel, and zinc refining, and by application of the Parkes process on lead metal obtained from lead ores that contain small amounts of silver. Commercial-grade fine silver is at least 99.9% pure, and purities greater than 99.999% are available. In 2011, Mexico was the top producer of silver (4,500 tonnes or 19% of the world's total), closely followed by Peru (4,000 t) and China (4,000 t).51
As of 26 August 2013, the price of silver is US$773 per kilogram (US$24.04 per troy ounce52). This equates to approximately 1/58 the price of gold. The ratio has varied from 1/15 to 1/100 in the past 100 years.citation needed Physical silver bullion prices are higher than the paper prices, with premiums increasing when demand is high and local shortages occur.53
In 1980, the silver price rose to a peak for modern times of US$49.45 per troy ounce (ozt) due to market manipulation of Nelson Bunker Hunt and Herbert Hunt. Inflation-adjusted to 2012, this is approximately US$138 per troy ounce. Some time after Silver Thursday, the price was back to $10/ozt.54 From 2001 to 2010, the price moved from $4.37 to $20.19 (average London US$/oz).55 According to the Silver Institute, silver's recent gains have greatly stemmed from a rise in investor interest and an increase in fabrication demand.55 In late April 2011, silver reached an all-time high of $49.76/ozt.
In earlier times, silver has commanded much higher prices. In the early 15th century, the price of silver is estimated to have surpassed $1,200 per ounce, based on 2011 dollars.56 The discovery of massive silver deposits in the New World during the succeeding centuries has been stated as a cause for its price to have diminished greatly.
The price of silver is important in Judaic law. The lowest fiscal amount a Jewish court, or Beth Din, can convene to adjudicate a case over is a shova pruta (value of a Babylonian pruta coin).citation needed This is fixed at .025 grams (0.00088 oz) of pure, unrefined silver, at market price. In a Jewish tradition, still continuing today, on the first birthday of a first-born son, the parents pay the price of five pure-silver coins to a Kohen (priest). Today, the Israel mint fixes the coins at 117 grams (4.1 oz) of silver. The Kohen will often give those silver coins back as a gift for the child to inherit.57
Silver plays no known natural biological role in humans, and possible health effects of silver are a disputed subject. Silver itself is not toxic to humans, but most silver salts are. In large doses, silver and compounds containing it can be absorbed into the circulatory system and become deposited in various body tissues, leading to argyria, which results in a blue-grayish pigmentation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Argyria is rare, and although, so far as known, this condition does not otherwise harm a person's health, it is disfiguring and usually permanent. Mild forms of Argyria are sometimes mistaken for cyanosis.7
Overexposure to silver can occur in workers in the metallurgical industry, persons taking silver-containing dietary supplements, patients who have received silver sulfadiazine treatment, and individuals who accidentally or intentionally ingest silver salts. Silver concentrations in whole blood, plasma, serum, or urine may be measured to monitor for safety in exposed workers, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.58
Silver is used in food coloring; it has the E174 designation and is approved in the European Union.
The safety of silver for use in food is disputed.59 Traditional Indian dishes sometimes include the use of decorative silver foil known as vark,60 and in various cultures, silver dragée are used to decorate cakes, cookies, and other dessert items.59 The use of silver as a food additive is not approved in the United States.citation needed
- List of silver compounds
- Silverpoint drawing
- Free silver
- List of elements
- Hardnesses of the elements (data page)
- Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
- Hansen, C. J.; Primas, F. (2010). "Silver Stars". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 5: 67. doi:10.1017/S1743921310000207.
- Nichols, Kenneth D. (1987). The Road to Trinity. Morrow, New York: Morrow. p. 42. ISBN 0-688-06910-X.
- "Eastman at Oak Ridge – Dr. Howard Young". Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- Oman, H. (1992). "Not invented here? Check your history". Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine 7 (1): 51–53. doi:10.1109/62.127132.
- Edwards, H.W.; Petersen, R.P.; Petersen (1936). "Reflectivity of evaporated silver films". Phys. Rev. 9 (9): 871. Bibcode:1936PhRv...50..871E. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.50.871.
- Hammond, C. R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0-8493-0481-4.
- Riedel, Sebastian; Kaupp, Martin (2009). "The highest oxidation states of the transition metal elements". Coordination Chemistry Reviews 253 (5–6): 606–624. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2008.07.014.
- "Atomic Weights of the Elements 2007 (IUPAC)". Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements (NIST)". Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for Silver (NIST)". Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- Kelly, William R.; Wasserburg, G. J. (1978). "Evidence for the existence of 107Pd in the early solar system". Geophysical Research Letters 5 (12): 1079. Bibcode:1978GeoRL...5.1079K. doi:10.1029/GL005i012p01079.
- Russell, Sara S.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Hutchison, Robert (2001). "Origin of Short-Lived Radionuclides". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 359 (1787): 1991–2004. Bibcode:2001RSPTA.359.1991R. doi:10.1098/rsta.2001.0893. JSTOR 3066270.
- Bjelkhagen, Hans I. (1995). Silver-halide recording materials: for holography and their processing. Springer. pp. 156–166. ISBN 3-540-58619-9.
- Meyer, Rudolf; Köhler, Josef and Homburg, Axel (2007). Explosives. Wiley–VCH. p. 284. ISBN 3-527-31656-6.
- A. Earnshaw; Norman Greenwood (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Elsevier. p. 903. ISBN 9780080501093.
- "A Riot of Effects; Kilnforming". Bullseyeglass.com. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "US Half Dollar Timeline". Metallicoin (United States: metallicoin.com). Retrieved 9 May 2013.
- Utah Law Makes Coins Worth Their Weight in Gold (or Silver), New York Times, 29 May 2011
- "Gold Jewellery Alloys > Utilise Gold. Scientific, industrial and medical applications, products ,suppliers from the World Gold Council". Utilisegold.com. 20 January 2000. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
- "Chambers Search Chambers". Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- McRae, Kelly. "Trade Secrets". Western Horseman Magazine. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
- "Silver Supply & Demand". The Silver Institute. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- Nikitin, Pavel V.; Lam, Sander and Rao, K. V. S. (2005). "Low Cost Silver Ink RFID Tag Antennas". 2005 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2B. p. 353. doi:10.1109/APS.2005.1552015. ISBN 0-7803-8883-6.
- Hill, Russ (1999). Coated Glass Applications and Markets. Fairfield, CA: BOC Coating Technology. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-914289-01-2.
- Wilson, Ray N. (2004). Reflecting Telescope Optics: Basic design theory and its historical development. Springer. p. 422. ISBN 3-540-40106-7.
- Jaworske, D.A. (1997). "Reflectivity of silver and silver-coated substrates from 25 °C to 800 °C (for solar collectors)". Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 1997. IECEC-97., Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety 1: 407. doi:10.1109/IECEC.1997.659223. ISBN 0-7803-4515-0.
- Rossing, Thomas D. (1998). The physics of musical instruments. Springer. pp. 728–732. ISBN 0-387-98374-0.
- Meyers, Arnold (2004). Musical instruments: history, technology, and performance of instruments of western music. Oxford University Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-19-816504-8.
- Golgi, C. (1873). "Sulla struttura della sostanza grigia del cervello". Gazzetta Medica Italiana (Lombardia) 33: 244–246.
- Oliver, C. (1994). "Use of Immunogold with Silver Enhancement". Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols. pp. 211–000. doi:10.1385/0-89603285-X:211. ISBN 978-0-89603-285-9.
- Beattie, M.; Taylor, J. (2011). "Silver alloy vs. Uncoated urinary catheters: A systematic review of the literature". Journal of Clinical Nursing 20 (15–16): 2098–2108. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03561.x. PMID 21418360.
- Bouadma, L; Wolff, M; Lucet, JC (August 2012). "Ventilator-associated pneumonia and its prevention". Current opinion in infectious diseases 25 (4): 395–404. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328355a835. PMID 22744316.
- Maillard, Jean-Yves; Hartemann, Philippe (2012). "Silver as an antimicrobial: Facts and gaps in knowledge". Critical Reviews in Microbiology: 1. doi:10.3109/1040841X.2012.713323.
- Lansdown, Alan B.G (2010). Silver in Healthcare: Its Antimicrobial Efficacy and Safety in Use. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 159. ISBN 1-84973-006-7.
- Duquesne, Sophie et al. (2007). Multifunctional barriers for flexible structure: textile, leather, and paper. p. 26. ISBN 3-540-71917-2.
- Geranio, L.; Heuberger, M.; Nowack, B. (2009). "The Behavior of Silver Nanotextiles during Washing". Environmental Science & Technology 43 (21): 8113. Bibcode:2009EnST...43.8113G. doi:10.1021/es9018332.
- Washing nanotextiles: can nanosilver escape from clothes?, European Commission, 17 December 2009
- Patterson, C. C. (1972). "Silver Stocks and Losses in Ancient and Medieval Times". The Economic History Review 25 (2): 205–235 (216, table 2; 228, table 6). doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1972.tb02173.x.
- de Callataÿ, François (2005). "The Greco-Roman Economy in the Super Long-Run: Lead, Copper, and Shipwrecks". Journal of Roman Archaeology 18: 361–372 (365f.).
- Amemiya, T. (2007) Economy and Economics of Ancient Greece, Taylor & Francis, p. 7, ISBN 0203799313.
- Matthew 26:15
- White, Matthew (2012) The Great Big Book of Horrible Things, New York: W.W. Norton, pp. 285–286, ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3.
- Diana Scarisbrick (2004). Historic Rings: Four Thousand Years Of Craftsmanship. Kodansha International. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-4-7700-2540-1.
- "Direct evidence of 1,900 years of indigenous silver production in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru". Pnas.org. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Asimov, Isaac (1966). Building Blocks of the Universe. Abelard-Schuman.
- "Coinflation: 1942–1945 Silver Jefferson Nickel Value". Retrieved 11 March 2013.
- CPM Group (2011). CPM Silver Yearbook. New York, NY: Euromoney Books. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-9826741-4-7.
- "Preliminary Economic Assessment Technical Report 43-101". South American Silver Corp. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19.
- "Why Are Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan So Split on Foreign Mining?". EurasiaNet.org. 2013-08-07. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- Silver Statistics and Information, USGS
- Latest Silver News. kitcosilver.com
- Will Precious Metal Premiums One Day Trump the Spot Price? – International Business Times. Ibtimes.com (18 May 2012). Retrieved on 2012-05-28.
- Abolafia, Mitchel Y; Kilduff, Martin (1988). "Enacting Market Crisis: The Social Construction of a Speculative Bubble". Administrative Science Quarterly 33 (2): 177–193. doi:10.2307/2393054. JSTOR 2393054.
- World Silver Survey 2011. London: The Silver Institute and GFMS Limited. 2011. p. 8. ISSN 1059-6992.
- Live Silver Prices, Silver Bullion Prices & 650 Years of Silver Prices. Goldinfo.net. Retrieved on 2 May 2011.
- Living Judaism: the complete guide to Jewish belief, tradition, Wayne D. Dosick – 1995 "The price was set at five shekalim (the plural of shekel, the monetary unit of the time) for each of the 273 extra firstborn (Numbers 3:47). The money was given to Aaron, the High Priest, the head of the tribe of Levi."
- Baselt, R. (2008) Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, pp. 1429–1431, ISBN 0-9626523-7-7.
- Meisler, Andy (18 December 2005). "A Tempest on a Tea Cart". The Los Angeles Times.
- Sarvate, Sarita (4 April 2005). "Silver Coating". India Currents. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silver.|
|Look up silver in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Chemistry in its element podcast (MP3) from the Royal Society of Chemistry's Chemistry World: Silver
- Silver at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
- Society of American Silversmiths
- The Silver Institute A silver industry website
- A collection of silver items Samples of silver
- Transport, Fate and Effects of Silver in the Environment
- CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Silver
- Picture in the Element collection from Heinrich Pniok
Return to Fuhz Home - This article covering Silver is enhanced for the visually impaired.
The text of this Fuhz article is released under the GNU Free Documentation License