The word Pashto written in Pashto (Nastaliq style)
|Pronunciation||[ˈpəʂt̪oː], [ˈpəçt̪oː], [ˈpʊxt̪oː]|
|Native to||Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Pashtun diaspora|
|Native speakers||40 million (2007)12|
Central Pashto (Ghilzai)
|Writing system||Arabic script (Pashto alphabet)|
|Official language in||Afghanistan4|
|Recognised minority language in||Pakistan5|
|Regulated by||Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy (Pakistan)6
|ISO 639-3||pus – inclusive code
pst – Central Pashto
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – Waneci
Map of Pashto-speaking regions (orange)
Pashto (پښتو pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː, ˈpəçt̪oː, ˈpʊxt̪oː]; alternatively spelled Pukhto, Pakhto or Pushto), also known historically as Afghani (افغاني afğānī)7 and Pathani,8 is the native language of the Pashtun people of South-Central Asia. Pashto is a member of the Eastern Iranian languages group.91011 Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan41213 (the other being Dari), and is also spoken as a regional language in western and northwestern Pakistan and among the Pashtun diaspora around the world.
Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family,314 although Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranian.15 The number of Pashtuns or Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 40–60 million people worldwide.1617181819
As a national language of Afghanistan,20 Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 35–60%21222324 of the total population of Afghanistan.
In Pakistan, Pashto is a provincial language, spoken as a first language by about 15.42%25 of Pakistan's 170 million people. It is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and northern Balochistan. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province as well as by Pashtuns who are found living in different cities throughout the country. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh.2627 With as high as 7 million by some estimates, the city of Karachi in Pakistan has the largest concentration of urban Pashtun population in the world2829 meaning there are more Pashtuns in Karachi than in any other city in the world. As per the current demographic ratio, Pashtuns are about 25% of Karachi's population.29
Other communities of Pashto speakers are found in northeastern Iran, primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border,30 and in Tajikistan.31 There are also communities of Pashtun descent in the southwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir.323334
In addition, sizable Pashto-speaking communities also exist in the Middle East, especially in the United Arab Emirates,35 and Saudi Arabia, as well as in the United States, United Kingdom,35 Thailand, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan, Russia, New Zealand, etc.
The Durrani Empire comprised regions on both sides of the Durand line and parts of Persia before the present day ethno-linguistic situation in South-Central Asia, by which the British colonial power annexed about one third of Afghanistan. The border created a buffer zone and was drawn through the Pashtun areas of settlement leaving the larger part of them in what was to become Pakistan.
Pashto (since 1936) is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari (Persian).36 Since the early 18th century, all the kings of Afghanistan were ethnic Pashtuns except for Habibullah Kalakani, and most of them bilingual although Amānullāh Khān spoke Pashto as his second language.37 Persian as the literary language of the royal court38 was more widely used in government institutions while Pashto was spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native tongue. Amanullah Khan began promoting Pashto during his reign as a marker of ethnic identity and a symbol of "official nationalism"37 leading Afghanistan to independence after the defeat of the British colonial power in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1930s, a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto as a language of government, administration and art with the establishment of a Pashto Society Pashto Anjuman in 193139 and the inauguration of the Kabul University in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy Pashto Tolana in 1937.40 Although officially strengthening the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a "sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing".37 King Zahir Shah thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933, that both Persian and Pashto were to be studied and utilized by officials.41 In 1936, Pashto was formally granted the status of an official language42 with full rights to usage in all aspects of government and education by a royal decree under Zahir Shah despite the fact that the ethnically Pashtun royal family and bureaucrats mostly spoke Persian.40 Thus Pashto became a national language, a symbol for Afghan nationalism.
The status of official language was reaffirmed in 1964 by the constitutional assembly when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari.4344 The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto.
In Pakistan, Urdu and English are the two official languages, but Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto is the regional language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan.45 In 1984, Pashto was permitted to be used as the medium of instruction in primary schools. In government-controlled primary schools in Pashto-speaking areas, Pashto is now the medium of instruction in class 1 and 2, and taught as a compulsory subject up to class 5, however, Urdu remains the main language of education and activities outside home, while English is a compulsory subject from class 1. English medium private schools in Pashto-speaking areas, however, do not use Pashto even at primary level. The imposition of Urdu as the language of early education has caused a systematic degradation and decline of many of Pakistan's native languages including Pashto.46
According to 19th-century linguist James Darmesteter and modern linguist Michael M. T. Henderson, Pashto is "descended from Avestan",91011 but Georg Morgenstierne says they are merely closely related.47 The word "Pashto" derives by regular phonological processes from Parsawā- "Persian".48 Nonetheless, the Pashtuns are sometimes compared with the Pakhta tribes mentioned in the Rigveda (1700–1100 BC), apparently the same as a people called Pactyans, described by the Greek historian Herodotus as living in the Achaemenid's Arachosia Satrapy as early as the 1st millennium BC.49 However, this comparison appears to be due mainly to the apparent, etymologically unjustified, similarity between their names.50
Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana and to their east was India. Since the 3rd century CE and onward, they are mostly referred to by the name "Afghan" ("Abgan")515253 and their language as "Afghani".7
Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri in the eighth century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. However, this is disputed by several European experts due to lack of strong evidence. Pata Khazana is a Pashto manuscript54 claimed to be first compiled during the Hotaki dynasty (1709–1738) in Kandahar, Afghanistan. During the 17th century Pashto poetry was becoming very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote poetry in Pashto are Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Afghan Empire.
Pashto is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity. Adjectives come before nouns. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem.),55 two numbers (sing./plur.), and four cases (direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative). The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect. There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood. The sentence construction of Pashto is akin to Indo-Aryan languages like Prakrits and Hindustani, unlike Persian. The Pashto noun comes after the adjective and the possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. An exception occurs when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect or past perfect). In such cases, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but if it is transitive, it agrees with the object,20 therefore Pashto shows a partly ergative behavior. The language uses both preposition and postposition, but also circumpositions.
Pashto also has the diphthongs /ai/, /əi/, /ɑw/, /aw/.
|Plosive||p b||t̪ d̪||ʈ ɖ||k ɡ||q||ʔ|
|Affricate||t͡s d͡z||t͡ʃ d͡ʒ|
|Fricative||f||s z||(ʂ ʐ)||ʃ ʒ||(ç ʝ)||x ɣ||h|
The phonemes /q/, /f/ tend to be replaced by [k], [p].
The retroflex fricatives /ʂ/, /ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç/, /ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not separate phonemes. In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the southern/southwestern dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the west-central dialects. Other dialects merge the original retroflexes with other existing sounds: The southeastern dialects merge them with the postalveolar fricatives /ʃ/, /ʒ/, while the northern/northeastern dialects merge them with the velar phonemes in an asymmetric pattern, pronouncing them as /x/, /ɡ/ (not /ɣ/). Furthermore, according to Henderson (1983),56 the west-central voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ actually occurs only in the Wardak Province, and is merged into /ɡ/ elsewhere in the region.
In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages; those words can be easily compared to those known from Avestan, Ossetic and Pamir languages. However, a remarkably large number of words are special to Pashto.3 Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from the Arabic, Persian and Hindustani languages (in Pakistan),5758 with the modern educated speech borrowing words from English,16 French,16 and German.16
Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Persian alphabet, which in part is derived from the Arabic alphabet. It has extra letters for Pashto-specific sounds. Since the 17th century, Pashto has been primarily written in the Naskh script, rather than the Nasta'liq script used for neighboring Persian and Urdu.
The Pashto alphabet consists of 44 letters and 4 diacritic marks. The following table gives the letters' isolated forms, along with the Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:
ǵ (or ẓ̌)
/ʐ, ʝ, ɡ/
x̌ (or ṣ̌)
/ʂ, ç, x/
w, ū, o
/w, u, o/
h, a, ə
/h, a, ə/
Pashto has two main dialects: a 'softer' dialect spoken in the south, and a 'harsher' dialect in the north. The former is further divided into southwestern and southeastern dialects, and the latter into northwestern (also called central or Ghilzai dialect) and northeastern. It is dominated by the geographical spread of the shift in the pronunciation of these five consonants:
The morphological differences between the most extreme north-eastern and south-western dialects are comparatively few and unimportant, and the criteria of dialect differentiation in Pashto are primarily phonological.59
Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakerr with the title of Ma'refa al-Afghāni ("Introduction of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 in India under the title of Riāz al-Muhabat ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mohabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled Ajāyeb al-Lughat ("Wonders of Languages").
- Iranian Languages vocabulary comparison table
- Central Pashto language
- List of Pashto-language poets
- List of Pashto-language singers
- Pre-Islamic scripts in Afghanistan
- Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)
- Pashto (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
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- Constitution of Afghanistan – Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
- "Population by Mother Tongue". Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705.
- John Leyden, Esq., M.D. and William Erskine, Esq., ed. (1921). "Events Of The Year 910 (1525)". Memoirs of Babur. Packard Humanities Institute. p. 5. Retrieved 2012-01-10. "To the south is Afghanistān. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni."
- India. Office of the Registrar General (1961). Census of India, 1961: Gujarat. Manager of Publications. pp. 142, 166, 177.
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- Henderson, Michael (1983). "Four Variaties of Pashto". Journal of the American Oriental Society (103.595-8).
- Darmesteter, James (1890). Chants populaires des Afghans. Paris.
- "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2012. "From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state."
- Banting, Erinn (2003). Afghanistan: The land. Crabtree Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 0-7787-9335-4. Retrieved 2010-08-22.
- Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Pashto Family Tree". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
- Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 0-923891-72-2. Retrieved 2010-10-25. "Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million..."
- Paul M. Lewis, ed. (2009). "Pashto, Northern". SIL International. Dallas, Texas: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Retrieved 2010-09-18. "Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries."
- "Pashto". Omniglot.com. Retrieved 2010-10-25. "The exact number of Pashto speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million."
- Thomson, Gale (2007). Countries of the World & Their Leaders Yearbook 08 2. European Union: Indo-European Association. p. 84. ISBN 0-7876-8108-3. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
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- "Pashto". UCLA International Institute: Center for World Languages. University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
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- Government of Pakistan: Population by Mother Tongue
- Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy (2009-07-17). "Karachi's Invisible Enemy". PBS. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "In a city of ethnic friction, more tinder". The National. 2009-08-24. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
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- "Pashto, Southern". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th edition. 2000. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- Walter R Lawrence, Imperial Gazetteer of India. Provincial Series, pg 36–37, Link
- "Study of the Pathan Communities in four States of India". Khyber.org. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
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- Tariq Rahman. Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan. Contemporary South Asia, July 1995, Vol 4, Issue 2, p151-20.
- Lorenz, Manfred. Die Herausbildung moderner iranischer Literatursprachen. In: Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung, Vol. 36. Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR. Akademie Verlag, Berlin: 1983. P. 184ff.
- Other sources note 1933, i.e. Johannes Christian Meyer-Ingwersen. Untersuchungen zum Satzbau des Paschto. 1966. Ph.D. Thesis, Hamburg 1966.
- Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. Burlington, Ashgate: 2005. p. 63.
- István Fodor, Claude Hagège. Reform of Languages. Buske, 1983. P. 105ff.
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- Dupree, Louis: Language and Politics in Afghanistan. In: Contributions to Asian Studies. Vol. 11/1978. p. 131 – 141. E. J. Brill, Leiden 1978. p. 131.
- Spooner, Bryan: "Are we teaching Persian?". In: Persian studies in North America: studies in honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Mehdi Marashi (ed.). Bethesda, Iranbooks: 1994. p. 1983.
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- Hywel Coleman (2010). TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION (Report). British Council, Pakistan. http://www.britishcouncil.org/pakistan-ette-role-of-language-in-education.htm. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1983). "AFGHANISTAN vi. Paṧto". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 14 July 2013. "it seems that the Old Iranic ancestor dialect of Paṧtō must have been close to that of the Gathas."
- Comrie, Bernard (1990). The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press. p. 549.
- "The History of Herodotus Chapter 7". Translated by George Rawlinson. The History Files. 440 BC. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- Nath, Samir (2002). Dictionary of Vedanta. Sarup & Sons. p. 273. ISBN 81-7890-056-4. Retrieved 2010-09-10.
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- "Pata Khazana" (pdf). Retrieved 2010-09-27.
- Emeneau, M. B. (1962) "Bilingualism and Structural Borrowing" Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106(5): pp. 430–442, p. 441
- Michael M.T. Henderson, Four Varieties of Pashto
- Vladimir Kushev (1997). "Areal Lexical Contacts of the Afghan (Pashto) Language (Based on the Texts of the XVI-XVIII Centuries)". Iran and the Caucasus (Brill) 1: 159–166. Retrieved 2009-06-07.
- Census of India, 1931, Volume 17, Part 2. Times of India. 1937. Retrieved 7 June 2009. "At the same time Pashto has borrowed largely from Persian, and through those languages from Arabic."
- D. N. MacKenzie, "A Standard Pashto", Khyber.org
- Schmidt, Rüdiger (ed.) (1989). Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. ISBN 3-88226-413-6.
- Gusain, Lakhan (2008?) A Grammar of Pashto. Ann Arbor, MI: Northside Publishers.
- Georg Morgenstierne (1926) Report on a Linguistic Mission to Afghanistan. Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, Serie C I-2. Oslo. ISBN 0-923891-09-9
- Daniel G. Hallberg (1992) Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 176 pp. ISBN 969-8023-14-3.
- Herbert Penzl A Grammar of Pashto: A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan, ISBN 0-923891-72-2
- Herbert Penzl A Reader of Pashto, ISBN 0-923891-71-4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pashto language.|
|For a list of words relating to Pashto language, see the Pashto language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Pashto edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Pashto Dictionary with Phonetic Keyboard & Auto-Suggestion
- Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan
- Indo-Aryan identity of Pashto
- Henry George Raverty. A Dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or Language of the Afghans. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867.
- D. N. MacKenzie, "A Standard Pashto", Khyber.org
- Freeware Online Pashto Dictionaries
- A Pashto Word List
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- Resources for the Study of the Pashto Language
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