The word Pax̌tō written in the Pashto alphabet
|Pronunciation||[ˈpəʂt̪oː], [ˈpəɧt̪oː], [ˈpʊxt̪oː]|
|Native to||Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Pashtun diaspora|
|40–60 million (2007–2009)123|
Central Pashto (Literary Pashto)
Yusufzai Pashto (Northeastern)
Southern Pashto (Kandahari)
Official language in
|Regulated by||Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy (Pakistan)5
pst – Central Pashto
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – Wanetsi
Pashto (English: /ˈpʌʃtoʊ/,789 rarely /ˈpæʃtoʊ/;Note 1Note 2 Pashto: پښتو Pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː, ˈpəɧt̪oː, ˈpʊɧt̪oː]), also known in older literature as Afghānī (افغاني)12 or Paṭhānī,13 is the South-Central Asian language of the Pashtuns. It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family.141516 Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan,41718 and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country.19 Pashto is the main language among the Pashtun diaspora around the world. The total number of Pashto-speakers is estimated to be 45–60 million people worldwide.120212122
- 1 Geographic distribution
- 2 History
- 3 Grammar
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Vocabulary
- 6 Writing system
- 7 Dialects
- 8 Literature
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
As a national language of Afghanistan,26 Pashto is primarily spoken in the east, south, and southwest, but also in some northern and western parts of the country. The exact numbers of speakers are unavailable, but different estimates show that Pashto is the mother tongue of 45–60%27282930 of the total population of Afghanistan.
In Pakistan, Pashto is the second-largest language and one of the provincial languages; however, provincial languages have no official status in Pakistan, given the fact that Urdu and English are the official languages of the country. Pashto is spoken as a first language by about 15.42%3132 of Pakistan's 170 million people. It is the main language of the Pashtun-majority regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan. It is also spoken in parts of Mianwali and Attock districts of the Punjab province as well as by Pashtuns who are found living in different cities throughout the country. Modern Pashto-speaking communities are found in the cities of Karachi and Hyderabad in Sindh.3334353636
In addition, sizable Pashto-speaking communities also exist in the Middle East, especially in the United Arab Emirates,41 Saudi Arabia, northeastern Iran (primarily in South Khorasan Province to the east of Qaen, near the Afghan border)42 as well as in the United States, United Kingdom,43 Thailand, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Qatar, Australia, Japan, Russia, New Zealand, etc.
Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, along with Dari.44 Since the early 18th century, all the kings of Afghanistan were ethnic Pashtuns except for Habibullah Kalakani.45 Persian as the literary language of the royal court46 was more widely used in government institutions while Pashto was spoken by the Pashtun tribes as their native tongue. Amanullah Khan began promoting Pashto during his reign as a marker of ethnic identity and a symbol of "official nationalism"45 leading Afghanistan to independence after the defeat of the British colonial power in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1930s, a movement began to take hold to promote Pashto as a language of government, administration and art with the establishment of a Pashto Society Pashto Anjuman in 193147 and the inauguration of the Kabul University in 1932 as well as the formation of the Pashto Academy Pashto Tolana in 1937.48 Although officially strengthening the use of Pashto, the Afghan elite regarded Persian as a "sophisticated language and a symbol of cultured upbringing".45 King Zahir Shah thus followed suit after his father Nadir Khan had decreed in 1933, that both Persian and Pashto were to be studied and utilized by officials.49 In 1936, Pashto was formally granted the status of an official language50 with full rights to usage in all aspects of government and education by a royal decree under Zahir Shah despite the fact that the ethnically Pashtun royal family and bureaucrats mostly spoke Persian.48 Thus Pashto became a national language, a symbol for Afghan nationalism.
The status of official language was reaffirmed in 1964 by the constitutional assembly when Afghan Persian was officially renamed to Dari.5152 The lyrics of the national anthem of Afghanistan are in Pashto.
In Pakistan, Urdu and English are the two official languages. Pashto has no official status at the federal level. On a provincial level, Pashto is the regional language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and northern Balochistan.53 The primary medium of education in government schools in Pakistan is Urdu54 but the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have placed more emphasis on English as the medium of instruction as of April 2014.55 English medium private schools in Pashto-speaking areas, however, generally do not use Pashto. The imposition of Urdu as the primary medium of education in public schools has caused a systematic degradation and decline of many of Pakistan's native languages including Pashto.56 This has caused growing resentment amongst Pashtuns and they also complain that Pashto is often neglected officially.5758
According to 19th-century linguist James Darmesteter and modern linguist Michael M. T. Henderson, Pashto is "descended from Avestan",141516 but Georg Morgenstierne says they are merely closely related.59 The Rabatak inscription of Emperor Kanishka written in Bactrian and Greek contains Pashto words, Abdul Hai Habibi says that the people borrowed these Pashto words due to proximity with Pashto speakers.60
Strabo, who lived between 64 BC and 24 CE, explains that the tribes inhabiting the lands west of the Indus River were part of Ariana and to their east was India. Since the 3rd century CE and onward, they are mostly referred to by the name "Afghan" ("Abgan")616263 and their language as "Afghani".12
Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of Ghor in the eighth century, and they use the writings found in Pata Khazana. However, this is disputed by several modern expertsby whom? due to lack of strong evidence. Pata Khazana is a Pashto manuscript64 claimed to be first compiled during the Hotaki dynasty (1709–1738) in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
From the 16th century, Pashto poetry become very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote poetry in Pashto are Pir Roshan, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi, and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Durrani Empire.
Pashto is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language with split ergativity. Adjectives come before nouns. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for two genders (masc./fem.),68 two numbers (sing./plur.), and four cases (direct, oblique I, oblique II and vocative). There is also an inflection for the subjunctive mood. The verb system is very intricate with the following tenses: present, simple past, past progressive, present perfect and past perfect. The sentence construction of Pashto has similarities with some other Indo-Iranian languages such as Prakrit and Bactrian. The Pashto noun comes after the adjective and the possessor precedes the possessed in the genitive construction. The verb generally agrees with the subject in both transitive and intransitive sentences. An exception occurs when a completed action is reported in any of the past tenses (simple past, past progressive, present perfect or past perfect). In such cases, the verb agrees with the subject if it is intransitive, but if it is transitive, it agrees with the object,26 therefore Pashto shows a partly ergative behavior. Like Kurdish, but unlike most other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto uses all three types of adpositions – prepositions, postpositions and circumpositions.
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In Pashto, the subject of the verb is expressed within the verb by adding suffixes, in a similar way to Persian and many other Indo-European languages. Some of the common Pashto suffixes are shown in the following table that represent the application of subject suffixes to a verb:
|suffix(Pashto Alpha)||English (Alpha)||For||with verb "Kaw"(Doing)||Description|
|م||әm||I||Kawәm (I doing)||Example|
|و||ū||we||Kawū (We doing)||Example|
|ې||ē||You||Kawē (You doing)||Example|
|ئ||әi||you (plural)||Kawәi (You [plural] doing)||Example|
The number of vowels and diphthongs varies according to dialect.
The words that have been borrowed and are non-native to Pashto, are colour coded. The phonemes /q/, /f/ tend to be replaced by [k], [p].71
The retroflex fricatives /ʂ/, /ʐ/ and palatal fricatives /ç/, /ʝ/ represent dialectally different pronunciations of the same sound, not separate phonemes. In particular, the retroflex fricatives, which represent the original pronunciation of these sounds, are preserved in the southern/southwestern dialects (especially the prestige dialect of Kandahar), while they are pronounced as palatal fricatives in the west-central dialects. Other dialects merge the original retroflexes with other existing sounds: The southeastern dialects merge them with the postalveolar fricatives /ʃ/, /ʒ/, while the northern/northeastern dialects merge them with the velar phonemes in an asymmetric pattern, pronouncing them as /x/, /ɡ/ (not /ɣ/). Furthermore, according to Henderson (1983),15 the west-central voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/ actually occurs only in the Wardak Province, and is merged into /ɡ/ elsewhere in the region.
Pashto also has a rich number of consonant clusters like /t̪l/, /kl/, /bl/, /ɣl/, /lm/, /nm/, /lw/, /sw/, /br/, /t̪r/, /ɣr/, /pr/, /d̪r/, /wr/, /kɺ̢/, mɺ̢, /wɺ̢/ /xp/, /pʃ/, /pʂ/, /xr/, /zb/, /ʒb/, /d͡zm/, /md͡z/, /t͡sk/, /sk/, /sp/, /ʃp/, /ʂk/, /xk/, /ʃk/, /kʃ/, /kx/, /kʂ/, /ml/, /gm/ and /ʐm/ among many others.
In Pashto, most of the native elements of the lexicon are related to other Eastern Iranian languages. However, a remarkably large number of words are unique to Pashto.23 Post-7th century borrowings came primarily from the Persian and Hindustani languages, with some Arabic words being borrowed through those two languages.7475 Modern speech borrows words from English,1 French,1 and German.1
Here is an exemplary list of Pure Pashto and borrowings:76
Pashto employs the Pashto alphabet, a modified form of the Arabic alphabet. It has extra letters for Pashto-specific sounds. Since the 17th century, Pashto has been primarily written in the Naskh script, rather than the Nasta'liq script used for neighboring Persian and Urdu alphabet.
The Pashto alphabet consists of 44 letters and 4 diacritic marks. The following table gives the letters' isolated forms, along with the Latin equivalents and typical IPA values:
ǵ (or ẓ̌)
/ʐ, ʝ, ɡ/
x̌ (or ṣ̌)
/ʂ, ç, x/
w, ū, o
/w, u, o/
h, a, ə
/h, a, ə/
Pashto dialects are divided into two varieties, the "soft" southern variety Paṣ̌tō, and the "hard" northern variety Pax̌tō. Each variety is further divided into a number of dialects. The southern dialect of Wanetsi is the most distinctive Pashto dialect.
1. Southern variety
- Kandahari dialect (or Southern dialect)
- Kakar dialect (or Southeastern dialect)
- Mandokhel-Shirani dialect
- Marwat-Lodi-Bettani dialect
- Southern Karlani group
- Khattak dialect
- Banuchi dialect
- Masidwola dialect
2. Northern variety
- Northern Karlani group
- Taniwola dialect
- Zadran-Mangal dialect
- Bangash-Orakzai-Turi-Zazi dialect
- Afridi dialect
3. Wanetsi dialect
Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets. From the time of Ahmad Shah Durrani (1722–1772), Pashto has been the language of the court. The first Pashto teaching text was written during the period of Ahmad Shah Durrani by Pir Mohammad Kakerr with the title of Ma'refa al-Afghāni ("Introduction of Afghani [Pashto]"). After that, the first grammar book of Pashto verbs was written in 1805 in India under the title of Riāz al-Muhabat ("Training in Affection") through the patronage of Nawab Mohabat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, chief of the Barech. Nawabullah Yar Khan, another son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan, in 1808 wrote a book of Pashto words entitled Ajāyeb al-Lughat ("Wonders of Languages").
An excerpt from the Kalām of Rahman Baba:
زه رحمان په خپله ګرم يم چې مين يمه
چې دا نور ټوپن مې بولي ګرم په څه
Zə Rahmɑn pə xpəla gram jam t͡ʃe majan jama
t͡ʃe d̪ɑ nor ʈopan me boli gram pə t͡sə
'I Rahman, myself am guilty that I am a lover,
On what does this other universe call me guilty.'
Pashto also has a rich heritage of proverbs or matalūna.77 An example matal [proverb]:
اوبه په ډانګ نه بېليږي
'Water does not separate with a pole [hitting it]'
This matal philosophically means that things which by their nature are destined to be united, force can not separate them.
- The only American pronunciation listed by Oxford Online Dictionaries, /ˈpæʃtoʊ/,10 is so rare that it is not even mentioned by the American Heritage and Merriam-Webster dictionaries.
- Sometimes spelled "Pushtu" or "Pushto",89 and then either pronounced the same11 or differently.89 The spelling "Pakhto" is so rare that it is not even mentioned by any major English dictionaries or even recognized by major English-Pashto dictionaries such as Thepashto.com, and it is specifically listed by Ethnologue.com only as an alternative name for Northern Pashto, not Southern or Central Pashto.
- Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 0-923891-72-2. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million...Cite error: Invalid
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- Constitution of Afghanistan – Chapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
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- Collins Dictionary
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To the south is Afghanistān. There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Tūrki, Moghuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashāi, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni.
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From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbeki, Turkmani, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state.
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Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries.
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The exact number of Pashto speakers is not known for sure, but most estimates range from 45 million to 55 million.
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Paṧtō undoubtedly belongs to the Northeastern Iranic branch.
- Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
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Pashto, which is mainly spoken south of the mountain range of the Hindu Kush, is reportedly the mother tongue of 60% of the Afghan population.
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A. Official languages. Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans...
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it seems that the Old Iranic ancestor dialect of Paṧtō must have been close to that of the Gathas.
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The earliest mention of the name 'Afghan' (Abgan) is to be found in a Sasanid inscription from the third century AD, and it appears in India in the form of 'Avagana'...
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At the same time Pashto has borrowed largely from Persian and Hindustani, and through those languages from Arabic.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pashto language.|
|For a list of words relating to Pashto, see the Pashto category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Pashto edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Pashto Dictionary with Phonetic Keyboard & Auto-Suggestion
- Pashto Language & Identity Formation in Pakistan
- Indo-Aryan identity of Pashto
- Henry George Raverty. A Dictionary of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or Language of the Afghans. Second edition, with considerable additions. London: Williams and Norgate, 1867.
- D. N. MacKenzie, "A Standard Pashto", Khyber.org
- Freeware Online Pashto Dictionaries
- A Pashto Word List
- Origins of Pashto
- Resources for the Study of the Pashto Language
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