Architecture of Turkey
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Architecture of Turkey or Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period refers to the architecture practised in the territory of present-day Turkey since the foundation of the republic in 1923. In the first years of the republic, Turkish architecture was influenced by Seljuk and Ottoman architecture, in particular during the First National Architectural Movement (also called the Turkish Neoclassical architecture movement.) However, starting from the 1930s, architectural styles began to differ from traditional architecture, also as a result of an increasing number of foreign architects being invited to work in the country, mostly from Germany and Austria.1 The Second World War was a period of isolation, during which the Second National Architectural Movement emerged. Similar to Fascist architecture, the movement aimed to create a modern but nationalistic architecture.2
Starting from the 1950s, isolation from the rest of the world began to diminish, which enabled the Turkish architects to experiment with new styles and become increasingly inspired by their counterparts in the rest of the world. However, they were largely constrained by the lack of technological infrastructure or insufficient financial resources until the 1980s.3 Thereafter, the liberalization of the economy and the shift towards export-led growth4 paved the way for the private sector to become the leading influence on architecture in Turkey.
The First National Architectural Movement (Turkish: Birinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı) was an architectural movement led by Turkish architects Vedat Tek (1873–1942) and Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870–1927). Followers of the movement wanted to create a new and "national" architecture, which was based on motifs from Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. The movement was also labelled Turkish Neoclassical architecture, or the National Architectural Renaissance.5 Other prominent followers of this movement were Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888–1982) and Giulio Mongeri (1873–1953).6 Notable buildings from this era are the Istanbul Main Post Office (1905–1909), Tayyare Apartments (1919–1922),7 Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han (1911–1926),8 State Art and Sculpture Museum (1927–1930),9 Ethnography Museum of Ankara (1925–1928),10 Bebek Mosque,11 and Kamer Hatun Mosque.1213
The Bauhaus style Florya Atatürk Marine Mansion (1935) and the Art Deco style Ankara Central Station (1937) are among the notable examples of this era.1415 As there were not enough architects in Turkey until the 1950s, various architects were invited by the government from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and France, in order to manage the rapid construction of the new capital Ankara. About 40 architects and urban planners designed and oversaw various projects (mostly in Ankara, and to a lesser extent in Istanbul and Izmir) between 1924 and 1942. Among them were Gudrun Baudisch, Rudolf Belling, Paul Bonatz, Ernst Arnold Egli, Martin Elsaesser, Anton Hanak, Franz Hillinger, Clemens Holzmeister, Henri Prost, Paolo Vietti-Violi, Werner Issel, Hermann Jansen, Theodor Jost, Heinrich Krippel, Carl Christoph Lörcher, Robert Oerley, Bernhard Pfau, Bruno Taut and Josef Thorak.12
Selected examples of buildings from this era are the Bauhaus style Florya Atatürk Marine Mansion (1935) designed by Seyfi Arkan; the Art Deco style Ankara Central Station (1937) designed by Şekip Akalın; the Court of Cassation building (1933–35) designed by Clemens Holzmeister; the Faculty of Languages, History and Geography building (1937) of Ankara University designed by Bruno Taut; and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey building (1938–63) designed by Clemens Holzmeister.14
Inspired by the design characteristics of Fascist architecture in Italy and Nazi architecture in Germany, which sought a modern interpretation of Neoclassical architecture (i.e. the architecture of a modern era Roman Empire, according to their ideologies), there was a trend towards creating a new national architecture in Turkey around the 1940s.21617 The movement was called the Second National Architectural Movement (Turkish: İkinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımı). The large number of foreign architects employed in Turkey in this period (especially from Germany and Austria) was a major factor in the introduction of these architectural movements and their stylistical characteristics. The pioneers of the movement in Turkey were Sedad Hakkı Eldem and Emin Onat. In order to lead this movement, Sedad Hakkı Eldem, who was a professor, held National Architecture seminars at the Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts, focusing on the traditional Turkish house styles.18
Similar to their contemporary equivalents in Italy and Germany, the government buildings of this style in Ankara and Istanbul had typically large proportions (high ceilings, high windows, etc.) in order to give the impression of a strong state authority. Some of them also had monumental facade designs reminiscent of Neoclassical architecture; but with more modern and plain rectangular shapes, symmetry, simplicity, and a general lack of ornateness.
Some of the buildings related to this style are the Ankara Opera House designed by Şevki Balmumcu (1933–34) and renovated by Paul Bonatz (1946–47); the General Directorate of Turkish State Railways (TCDD) designed by Bedri Uçar in 1938; Istanbul University Faculty of Science and Faculty of Literature buildings (1944–52); Anıtkabir (1944–53); Istanbul Radio Headquarters (1945–49); Şişli Mosque (1945–49); and the Çanakkale Martyrs' Memorial (1954–60). The movement was particularly influential between 1935 and 1950. From the 1950s, the influence of this style started to diminish due to the next wave of influences, especially International Style and Rationalism.18
At the beginning of the 1950s, a new generation of architects such as Nevzat Erol, Turgut Cansever, Abdurrahman Hancı, Cengiz Bektaş, Hayati Tabanlıoğlu, Enver Tokay, İlhan Tayman and Yılmaz Sanlı became more influential in the architectural arena. These were architects who either studied in Europe or had information of the modernist architecture of the time. Their quest for modernist architecture was in line with the International Style and Rationalism. However, the development of the Turkish economy was an important factor as well. Even though Turkish architects were able to follow up on the modern design of important architects of the time, they were constrained by the lack of technological infrastructure or insufficient financial resources.313
Selected examples of buildings from this era are the Anadolu Club Hotel (1951–1957) in Büyükada designed by Turgut Cansever and Abdurrahman Hancı; Hilton Istanbul Bosphorus (1952–1955) designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Sedad Hakkı Eldem; Istanbul Municipality Headquarters (1953–1960) designed by Nevzat Erol; Emek Business Center (1959–1965) in Ankara designed by Enver Tokay and İlhan Tayman; and Tekel Headquarters (1958–1960) in Istanbul designed by Yılmaz Sanlı and İlhan Tayman.3
One of the most important developments of this period was the establishment of the Chamber of Architects of Turkey in 1954. Various professional organizations for architects had existed beforehand, but there were no laws for the architectural profession until 1954.19
Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality City Hall was designed in 1953 by Nevzat Erol.
Following the 1960 coup d'état, Turkey endured various kinds of political and economic crises which affected the construction industry as well as the architectural sector. Despite these hardships, architects were able to design some important buildings. Abandoning Rationalism, Turkish architects tried to design their buildings in more flexible and fragmented forms. Important works from this period are the Vakıflar Hotel in Istanbul (1968, today the Ceylan Intercontinental Hotel), Middle East Technical University Campuses (1961) in Ankara, Istanbul Manufacturers' Market (1959), Turkish Historical Society Building (1967), Grand Ankara Hotel (1960, today the Rixos Grand Ankara Hotel) and Atatürk Cultural Center (1969) in Istanbul.2021
As a result of economic and social turbulence, architecture in Turkey suffered also in the 1970s. There were no significant breakthroughs during this period. Some important designs from the 1970s are the Turkish Language Association Building (1972), Atatürk Library (1973) and Abdi İpekçi Arena (1979).22
In January 1980, the government of Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel began implementing a far-reaching reform program designed by then Undersecretary of the Prime Ministry Turgut Özal to shift Turkey's economy toward export-led growth. These reforms had a positive effect on the construction industry and architecture.4 New methods such as prefabrication and curtain wall systems were introduced to Turkish architects and contractors in the 1980s. In addition, steel, aluminum, plastic and glass production increased, which allowed architects to free themselves from rigid forms.
Until the 1980s, the government sector was the leading client when it came to architecture and construction. However, the liberalization of the economy paved the way for the private sector to become the leading influence. Notable architects from this period include Behruz Çinici, Merih Karaaslan, Sevinç Hadi, Şandor Hadi, Ersen Gürsel, Mehmet Çubuk, Doğan Tekeli, Sami Sisa, Emre Arolat, Murat Tabanlıoğlu, Melkan Tabanlıoğlu, Hüsrev Tayla, Doğan Hasol, Atilla Yücel, Sema Soygeniş, Murat Soygeniş and Kaya Arıkoğlu, among others.212225
- Seljuk architecture
- Ottoman architecture
- List of Turkish architects
- List of tallest buildings in Turkey
- "Deutschsprachige Architekten in der frühen Republik" (in German). Goethe Institut. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
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- "Ankara - Ethnographical Museum". Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
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- "Kemer Hatun Mosque, Beyoglu, Istanbul" (in Turkish). MimarlikMuzesi.org. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization" (PDF). 14th International Planning History Conference submission by Nilufer Baturayoglu Yoney and Yildiz Salman, Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Architecture, Turkey. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "The production of a mise en scène for a nation and its subjects: Clemens Holzmeister et al. in the Ministries Quarter for Ankara, Turkey". Ali Cengizkan, The Journal of Architecture, Vol. 15, Iss. 6, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Florya Atatürk Marine Mansion". National Palaces of Turkey official web site. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Turkish Architectural Periodicals during the Republican Period, 1923-1980 by Ilker Ozdel at Dokuz Eylul University (Page 526)" (PDF). Çankaya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7/2 (November 2010). Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "The Ethos of Architects Towards an Analysis of Architectural Practice in Turkey, Thesis by Nilgun Fehim Kennedy, September 2005 (Page 23)" (PDF). Middle East Technical University, Turkey. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
- "A New Perspective on National Architecture: 2nd. National Architecture Movement". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "Architectural Profession Around the World, Turkey". The International Union of Architects. Retrieved January 21, 2012.
- "1960's (Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period)". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Modern Turkish Architecture (Renata Holod)". Academia.edu (University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "1970's up to the Present (Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period)". ArchMuseum.org. Retrieved January 22, 2012.
- "Istanbul's Unprecedented Property Boom Causes Concern About Citizens' Rights". Voice of America. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "New Tower to Dwarf Istanbul's Minarets". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Women Architects". Ustun Alsac. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
- "Isbank Tower". Emporis Buildings Database. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Istanbul Sapphire". E-Architect.co.uk. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Holod, Renata (2005). Modern Turkish architecture. Ankara: Chamber of Architects of Turkey.
- Bozdogan, Sibel (2002). Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish Architectural Culture in the Early Republic. University of Washington Press.
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